Monday, April 8, 2024

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 29 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 29 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 29 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 29 English Subtitle

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Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series Compass was first introduced into Europe by the Arabs, who almost certainly derived their knowledge from the East and China. In support of his theory that the compass was introduced into Europe by the Arabs, Tira-Boschi mentions that they were superior to Europeans in scientific learning and navigation. In later centuries, European writers (Sir J. Chardin [1643-1713], for instance) were only too prone to assume that “the Asiatics are beholden to us for this wonderful instrument.”

Yet, as early as 1498, we gather from a Portuguese description of a chart shown to Vasco da Gama by an Arab that it not only had compass points on it but that “the coast was laid down with great certainty by these two bearings of North and South, and East and West.” The Arabs, from whom the Turks learned their navigation, were highly skilled. As the historian, Sismondi remarked: “It is characteristic of the Middle Ages that when all their pretended discoveries are mentioned, they are always spoken of as if they were just in general use.

Gunpowder, the compass, Arabic numerals, and paper—none of them are mentioned as new and original discoveries. Yet they must have effected a complete change in war, navigation, science, and education.” Barbarossa and his lieutenants certainly had a great deal to teach the Turkish shipmasters in navigation, as much as anything else. Whereas the latter had been almost entirely engaged in the island-studded Aegean, Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

the others had had to confront the long silent seas north of Africa and the reaches between Algiers, Gibraltar, and beyond. A German monk, Felix Faber, on a voyage to the Holy Land in 1483, gave a fascinating picture of the navigational methods in current use aboard a merchantman: “Besides the pilot, there were other learned men, astrologers, and watchers of omens who considered the signs of the stars and sky, judged the winds and gave directions to the pilot himself. Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

The color of the sea, the movements of dolphins and of fish, the smoke from the fire, and the scintillations when the oars were dipped into the water. At night they knew the time by an inspection of the stars …” The monk’s description is interesting, for apart from the fact that he confused technicians with auspices or “watchers of omens,” he shows pretty clearly how the navigation department of a large ship at that time was organized and run. Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series
Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Aboard a small Turkish galleot, there would not have been such a complement of specialists—possibly two or three, including the rais or master. Felix Faber also mentions the charts used by the mariners as being marked “in a scale of inches showing length and breadth” and describes the rhumb lines delineated on most charts of that period. Turkish captains of Barbarossa’s time did not wander vaguely over the sea, were far from incompetent in their navigation, and could rendezvous at a chosen place without much difficulty.

Quite apart from the fact that in the comparatively small area of the Mediterranean, there was not much call for astronomical navigation—the ancients had got on well enough by simple observations of the Pole Star at night and the rising and the setting of the sun to give them a direction —the galley masters had so expert a knowledge of their vessels’ capabilities that they could rely very well on dead reckoning. There are also no tides worth speaking of in the Mediterranean, which calculates much simpler and more accurately by dead reckoning than in the oceans.

They did, however, have a simple and ingenious instrument for measuring their latitude, the kamal. This was no more than a small wooden tablet with a knotted string through the center in its simplest form. It worked upon the principle that “an object of fixed length will measure the height of any heavenly body above the horizon according to the distance at which it is held from the eye … In the simplest instruments, the user had the known star altitude for each port on his route knotted on the string and recognized them according to each length found.

But more usually, the string was knotted at distances corresponding to isbas of 1 ° 36′, each four of which make a Subban of 6° 24’….” The kamal was a forerunner of the cross-staff, which was also widely used by the sixteenth century. Barbarossa’s capabilities at sea are evidenced enough that we never hear of any vessels being lost by stranding throughout his campaigns. Also, unlike the Spaniards, who were constantly falling foul of the treacherous coastline and weather of North Africa, the ships under Barbarossa’s command do not seem to have been hazarded on expeditions at unsuitable seasons of the year.


Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series A great sea captain must also be a considerable navigator, and there is no doubt that Barbarossa, like Drake, had mastered the art of navigation long before he became the Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman fleet. Although his service was in the hot, tideless Mediterranean and not on the world’s great oceans, he, too, had learned from his youth onward, by the true symbiosis of sailor and sea, the
feel of the winds and weather.

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series
Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

He knew in the palms of his hands the dead swell from an old storm center, the new lump presaging wind on the way, the movement of coastal currents, and the pattern of solar winds. He knew the marobbio that, suddenly and without any warning, can surge around the southern coast of Sicily, raising the sea level two or three feet in calm weather. He knew the khamsin or gave when it blew hot as a furnace off the deserts of North Africa. Then, picking up moisture as it moved over the sea, he turned into the sirocco that plagues the Maltese archipelago and all southern Italy and Sicily.


The Sultan’s new Admiral was, like all great sailors, familiar with all the aspects of the sea—so much so that he seemed as much a part of it and it of him as if their natures were indissolubly linked together. He knew in himself the violence, fury, and long calms of easy weather. He knew, too, its indestructible energy. It is hardly surprising to read that, all that winter, “Barbarossa was continually in the arsenal,

TRIUMPHANT SUMMER
In July 1534, the Turkish fleet left the Golden Horn with its new Admiral in the van. It moved by easy stages down through the Aegean to turn west around Cape Matapan. The inhabitants of the islands saw them pass. They clustered together in their hilltop villages (for the ancient harbor towns along the coasts had long since been abandoned), wondering, no doubt, whether the Turks were in search of more Christian sons to make into janissaries or whether some expedition was planned to carry off their young men for service in the galleys.

From the white Chora of Samothrace to the Chora of lonely Amorgos, they watched the procession of this tremendous new fleet as it made its way southward through the sea that their forefathers had once called “the Sea of the Kingdom.” But the kingdom to which it now belonged was that of the Ottoman Turks, whose empire now extended to Tabriz in Persia. The one-time invaders of Europe, whom the ancient Greeks had defeated in the most glorious years of their history, were now powerless; even the Persians were in retreat before the Turks.

As John Milton phrased it: Bactrian Sophi, from the horns Of Turkish crescent, leaves all waste beyond The realm of Aladule, in his retreat … Now the crescent horns of an advancing line of galleys and galleots moved westward through the Ionian Sea, bound for the trouble of Europe and equally for the discomfiture of the Muslim ruler of Tunis. According to one account, Eighty-four ships left Constantinople that summer under the command of Kheir-ed-Din Barbarossa.


The ports and coastal villages of Italy and Sicily had learned to look southward for the lean hulls of the galleys from the Barbary Coast, for the lateen sails and the fourteen-aside oars walking deliberately and purposefully towards their shores in the summer months of the raiders. Their watchtowers were manned along their coastlines and on their rocky peaks to give warning of the approaching enemy.

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series
Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

The local militia looked southward in the summer from Malta and Gozo, from Sicily, from the Aegadian and the Lipari Islands. But now, for the first time, to their horror, the enemy struck suddenly from the East— and not just a few marauding corsair captains, but a colossal fleet organized and commanded by none other than Barbarossa. Setting his course westward from the coast of Greece, Barbarossa arrived out of the blue Ionian like an earthquake on the earthquake-ridden Strait of Messina.

Here, in the region once haunted by Scylla and Charybdis and described by Homer as the place where “no sailors can boast that they ever passed Scylla without losing some of their number,” a new but human terror struck. Early one morning, out of the dormant sea, came the threshing sound of the galleys— poised on whose rambades were janissaries with their bows, arquebuses, and scimitars. Swinging to the north up the Messina Strait, leaving Cape Spartivento behind them, they saw on their port hand the extended range of mountains that back Messina, and far away on their quarter, the lazily smoking peak of Mount Aetna.

They were in the land of legend, but they brought their tale with them—one that was to dominate the Mediterranean, in a sense, far longer than the poetry of Homer. They got the myth of “the corsairs” and “the Barbary Coast.” This raid on Reggio was only a forerunner of the many that were to change the whole face of the Mediterranean coastline during the sixteenth century. Reggio, a city that had remained faithful to Rome throughout the Punic Wars and which even the great Hannibal had never succeeded in taking, now fell into the hands of the Turks.

For the first time, the unfortunate southern Italians realized that the threat to their shores came from North Africa and the Turks in the East. Barbarossa and his troops fell upon the city, commanding the trade route between Italy and Sicily and devastating it. Its inhabitants were enslaved—the young men destined for the galleys and the young women for the harems of Constantinople.

Barbaroslar Episode 29 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 29 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

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