Monday, June 24, 2024

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle

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Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series Only one galley, the crack of the whip sounding over the rowers’ backs, turned away in the confusion and managed to escape. Hotly pursued by some of the galleots, she made her way to Ibiza. She found safety at Salina, that cape where the flat white salt pans blaze under the sun. The other seven galleys of Spain surrendered one after another. All Episode

The whole action was a perfect example of the fact that it is not the size and weight of armament that necessarily wins battles, but efficient armament efficiently handled. Morale was then—as it is still—the prime requisite for success. Almost unbelievably, Aydin Rais, Salah Rais, and their Turks had turned what should have been a certain defeat into an incredible victory. They released their fellow countrymen and coreligionists from their chains and then turned back into the long sandy bay of Formentera to collect their Morisco passengers.

The latter, who had been nervously watching the whole action, prepared to flee towards the heights of the island if the Spaniards had won, came down and were re-embarked. Aydin and his lieutenants now spent several days in the anchorage, making their arrangements for the officering of the captured ships, for the distribution of passengers, and for the immediate repair of planks, oars, and rigging that had been damaged in the action.

It was an astounding action. British histories, for instance, which make much of the successes of Francis Drake against the Spaniards (such as his capture of the great San Felipe off the Azores in 1587) never mention the day when a captain of Barbarbarossa’s fleet took on eight large war galleys of Spain in an engagement which, by all the rules of war, should have gone the other way, and defeated them. Barbaroslar Episode 27 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle
Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle

But then whoever—-in any country in the world—has history truly presented to him? The English try to be objective but are far from successful. The Spaniards have considerable honesty, but a strong religious bias. The Italians use their charm like a smokescreen. The French (so soon after this particular episode to become allied with the Turks) merely lie. The Americans and the Russians often pretend that any history prior to their own is somewhat irrelevant.

But the history of the Mediterranean is important because the whole of Western culture stems from this sea and the land surrounding it. To see the culture and the technical achievements of the Mediterranean basin as totally European is as stupid as maintaining that there is a positive in electricity but no negative. The whole story of the cultures that have arisen in this part of the world stems from the fact that it is here that the interrelation between East and West is most acutely felt.

Aydin Rais and Salah Rais returned to Algiers, and to a most deserved triumph. Behind them, they had in tow, or under their command, seven of Spain’s great galleys and, among them, the flagship of the Spanish Mediterranean fleet. General Portuondo, the commander of the squadron, had been killed, but his son was among the prisoners— together with six other noble captains. Scions of many of the most highly connected families in Spain were among the captives (all of them certain for valuable ransoms), and hundreds of Christians could soon be offered for sale.

As an additional bonus, Aydin and his men had freed a number of Moriscos, all eager to become good citizens of Algeria. They had captured a large quantity of marketable treasure and had freed dozens of Moslems from the oar benches of the Spaniards. Fifteen twenty-nine was a year to remember.

Kheir-ed-Din is described by one commentator as “having envied his old crony the honor and reputation he had acquired by having the sole direction of that so-much-talked-of exploit.” This is possible, but Barbarossa was far too intelligent to have let it be evident, and his relationship with Aydin Rais remained as friendly as ever. In any case, during the time that the galleots had been away at sea, Kheir-ed-Din had managed to make useful alliances with the Zouaves and with another local ruler, Beni Abbas.

This was just as important to the new Turkish state of Algeria as any successes upon the high seas. Barbarossa had also come to the conclusion that he was now so powerful that he could no longer tolerate the Spanish garrison on the Penon of Algiers. True, it was not important enough to exert any real influence upon the coastline, but it was still a great inconvenience, preventing him from using the inner port of the harbour for the security of his galleys.

He had long followed his brother’s theory that—given Algiers and local power—he had only to wait until the right time, and the Spanish fortress would fall like a ripe plum into his hand. The time was now. The Spaniards were discouraged, and the King of Spain was away being crowned Emperor by the Pope. Kheir-ed-Din “knew the Spaniards dreaded him almost everywhere and was quite scandalised to find himself driven by them to many incommodities, by a scurvy fort, which they need would maintain, just in his teeth . .

The success of Aydin Rais further confirmed him in his opinion that, having reinforced his own city, he could now get rid of the Spaniards without much trouble. He needed the full advantages of the harbor, especially now that he had so many galleys and galleots under his command. So, in the spring of 1530, he set himself to removing the obdurate Spanish garrison. He had ordered several large siege guns from Constantinople and had started an armory of his own in Algiers. Barbaroslar Episode 27 Bangla Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

In any case, he had sufficient equipment to feel that he could batter the garrison into submission without having to hazard a landing-craft assault upon it—something that might well have cost him a considerable number of his best Turkish troops. The Governor of the fort was Don Martin de Vargas. He was the type of Spanish nobleman who has gone down in history as being not only well-born but also as accepting all the responsibilities that in those days were a requirement for belonging to the privileged classes.

Noblesse oblige was far from being a meaningless catchphrase. It did, indeed, mean what it said— that, if you were of the nobility you would discharge your obligations according to the high and hard standards that were demanded. Of course, only too often, the well-bred cheated and escaped their responsibilities, but in general—and this was particularly true of the Spaniards—they felt that they would rather die than suffer the shame of not living up to the ideals set for their class.

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle
Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle

Don Martin’s reply to Kheir-ed-Din Barbarossa’s offer of safe conduct, if he and his men surrendered, was classic: “I am astonished to hear a person of such worth, and so good a soldier as the Pasha of Algiers, making such an inglorious and scandalous proposal to one who is of no less worth, and no worse a soldier either. Such a suggestion might be acceptable to people who little value their honor.
But I would remind you that you are dealing with Spaniards, in whose breasts your vain and fruitless menaces can cause neither dread nor any apprehension.

Barbarossa can have had no doubt that this was the reply he would get and, indeed, had all his siege guns ready to open fire as soon as this formality was over. On May 6, 1530, the siege of the Penon of Algiers was opened. It continued for a full fifteen days, naval guns firing their iron cannonballs at the crumbling walls and a great murlaccio hurling huge stone shot from its cavernous mouth. It is a tribute to Spanish courage that the garrison of no more than two hundred men held out for so long in the face of such an implacable assault.

Perhaps they hoped for some relief ships from Spain (which were shortly due), but no relief came. On the sixteenth day, the main Turkish attack was launched through a huge breach in the walls. Only fifty-three men and the commander, Martin de Vargas, were found alive. They were sent to the slave quarters to join their fellow Spaniards captured in Aydin’s recent raid. According to one version, Barbarossa offered Don Martin his freedom if he would become a Moslem, adding that, in honor of his courage, he would be happy to appoint him captain of his personal guard.

The Spaniard’s reply to this suggestion is said to have been so haughty and insulting (referring to the Moslem faith as “a false and ridiculous sect”) that Barbarossa had him executed on the spot. But another account states that Don Martin was sent to Shershell along with other important Spanish captives, and was killed there by the Turks for trying to assist the Spaniards during their raid on Shershell in the following year. There is, in fact, no reliable evidence as to the gallant commander’s fate. Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbarossa’s first action after the capture of the fort that had so long been a thorn in his side was to order its complete destruction. Then, using stones from the fort and from local quarries, he set all the slaves to work on constructing a breakwater to connect the island to the mainland of Algiers. It was just after this had begun that a number of transports, loaded with men and ammunition for the relief of the Penon, came sailing unsuspecting down the coast. Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbarossa ordered out the galleots, which swooped like hawks on their prey, capturing (according to De la Graviere) “two thousand seven hundred men and a considerable quantity of arms and provisions.” It was an additional triumph and, meanwhile, the Penon of Algiers was no more. Within two years, a great stone mole protected the harbor of Algiers from northerlies and westerlies, while inside lay an ever-increasing fleet of galleys and galleots—a symbol of the new sea power of North Africa.

The addition of so many sea captains and ships to the growing Moslem strength in the western Mediterranean was largely due to the fact that in recent years there had been practically no Christian naval vessels operating anywhere in the eastern Mediterranean. The last threat to Turkish power in the Aegean and the Levant had been eliminated in 1522 when Sultan Suleiman had driven the Knights of St. John out of the island of Rhodes, after a siege in which he had lost thousands of men.

The expulsion of the knights from Rhodes had been an immense blow to Christendom, for the knights were the finest fighting sailors of their day, and had long been the principal opponents of Ottoman sea power in the east. For seven years they had been homeless; and it was only now, in 1530, that they took up residence in Malta —the island which was to become so indelibly associated with their name that they finally became known throughout Europe not as the Knights of St. John, but as “the Knights of Malta.”

But all this was in the future, and at the moment the knights—engaged in settling into their new home and extending its primitive fortifications—represented no threat to the Turkish dominance of the Mediterranean. Bushy-bearded Kheir-ed-Din built well upon the foundations that his brother had laid. Lane-Poole summarised his achievements during this period of his life: “Everything that Kheir-ed-Din took in hand seemed to prosper. Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle
Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle

His fleet increased month by month, till he had thirty-six of his own galleots perpetually on the cruise in the summer season; his prizes were innumerable, and his forces were increased by the fighting men of the seventy thousand Moriscos whom he rescued in a series of voyages, from servitude in Spain. The waste places of Africa have peopled with industrious agriculturalists whom the Spanish Government knew not how to employ. The foundries and dockyards of Algiers teemed with busy workmen.

Seven thousand Christian slaves labored at the defensive works and the harbor, and every attempt of the Emperor to rescue them and destroy the pirates was repelled with disastrous loss.” An attack on Shershell in the summer of 1531 by twenty galleys of Spain, although it resulted in some Christian prisoners being released, was repulsed without much difficulty, and Barbarossa was “comforted to learn that near 900 of such impertinent visitors [the Spaniards] had been cut to pieces,” and that he had more than six hundred new captives.

The commander of this unsuccessful expedition was Andrea Doria. His reverse rankled, and he no doubt looked forward to a further meeting with Barbarossa. Shortly afterward the latter led out his ships on one of his annual summer raids and captured two Neapolitan galleys on their way with cargoes of silk from Messina to Spain. Later in the year, and attempted rising by the slaves in the bagnio was discovered and suppressed long before it could become dangerous.

Barbarossa could undoubtedly call it a good year —the Spaniards repulsed at Shershell, a valuable cargo brought to port, and weakness in the system exposed and cured. It must be borne in mind that the divided state of Europe played a large part in all the Turkish successes of these years. While Spain and France were at loggerheads, while England was contesting with Spain and Portugal the rights to the new territories across the Atlantic, and while Italy was divided between papal power,

egocentric princes, and the Spanish-dominated Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, there was little hope of any coordinated action against the Turks. While Islam united many nations and different ethnic groups under its flag, Christianity seemed to be used merely as a qualification for being a European. After that, there was no need to pretend to “love your neighbor.” This was part of the penalty that Christianity had to pay for having become the “national” religion of the Romans and, later, of the Byzantines.

Once any chance of a union between the Eastern and Western churches had been shattered by the Fourth Crusade in its destruction of the Byzantine Empire, Christianity as a supranational force was bound to collapse. Its place was taken by European nationalism, and it was against this “house divided against itself” that the Kingdom of Algiers and the power of the Barbarossas were enabled to rise. The Turks, according to Abbot Haedo, “held the Christians in great contempt,” and it is not at all difficult to understand the reason for this.

As professing Christians, the inhabitants of Europe were, of course, contemptible. They worshipped “graven images”; contrary to their own and the Moslem faith they had superimposed upon the pantheon of the ancient god’s innumerable saints and martyrs (many of them bogus); and, while professing to be adherents of the God of Love and Peace, they spent much of their time killing one another. Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

But while the western, as well as the eastern ends of the Mediterranean, were now indisputably dominated by the Turks, the situation in the central basin, the Ionian Sea, was not so favorable to the Sultan. In 1532, the year after his repulse at Shershell, Andrea Doria conducted a remarkably successful campaign against the Grecian outposts of the Ottoman Empire. The great Genoese Admiral had withdrawn his allegiance from Francis I of France some four years before and had taken over his own twelve galleys to join the cause of Charles V.

This was an immense blow to France, for the added strength of the imperial navies, combined with the skill of Doria, entirely altered the naval balance of power between the two great rivals. The object of Doria’s raid on Greece was to create a diversion and take some of the pressure off Hungary, where the Sultan was advancing into the imperial territory at the head of his armies. Doria brilliantly attained his objective, sweeping in through the Gulf of Patras, capturing the city, and going on to seize the two forts which commanded the narrow entrance to the Gulf of Corinth.

Prior to his attack on Patras, Doria had captured the important garrison port of Coron commanding the Gulf of Messenia in the southern Peloponnese. In the spring of the following year, hearing that the garrison he had left behind was blockaded by a Turkish fleet, Doria fought an inspired action, defeated Lutfi Pasha in command of the Turkish fleet, and reinforced and revictualled the garrison.
There seems no doubt that it was Doria’s successes against the Turkish navy—and in their own home waters— that prompted Sultan Suleiman’s next action.

His Grand Vizier Ibrahim had long been urging the Sultan to institute closer relations with the new ruler of Algiers. He was eager to cement a friendship between the Sublime Porte and these Turks in the western Mediterranean who had been enjoying such overwhelming success against the forces of Spain and the Emperor. In the spring of 1533 Kheir-ed-Din Barbarossa, Beylerbey of Algiers received an ambassador from Constantinople.

He was commanded to present himself before Suleiman, Sultan of the Ottomans and “Allah’s Deputy on Earth,” at his earliest convenience. It was a moment of triumph for Barbarossa. Nearly thirty years previously he had left the Aegean as an obscure young man in the service of his brother, with two small galleots. He was now the ruler of nearly all Algeria, master of a fleet that terrorized the western Mediterranean, and important enough to have the most powerful ruler on earth requesting his presence at court.

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series For Barbarossa must have realized that the Sultan’s need for him in Constantinople was dictated by the fact that he, Barbarossa, had proved himself uniquely successful against the Christians— especially at sea. Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar Episode 27 English Subtitle Free Turkey Tv Series

Barbaroslar 27 English Subtitle Free| Turkey Tv Series

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Barbaroslar Episode 26 With English Subtitle

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