Kurulus Osman 92 Bangla Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series
Kurulus Osman 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
Kurulus Osman 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
Kurulus Osman Episode 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
Kurulus Osman Episode 92 English Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series The ulema represented the greatest power within the state independent of the grand vizier. The kâdîaskers of Anatolia and Rumelia were the government functionaries responsible for the administration of the religious law, possessing the power to appoint and dismiss kâdîs and religious dignitaries. They gave the final decision in lawsuits within the scope of the şerîat. The şeyhülislâm – the head of the ulema – was not considered a member of the government; nevertheless, he came in time to exercise a great influence in affairs of state. Watch All Episode
For the appointment of a new şeyhülislâm, the grand vizier petitioned the sultan, who did not however have to accept the nomination. Thus in 1598, despite the grand vizier Yemişçi Hasan’s strong pressure to appoint his own candidate, the sultan brought his tutor to the post. Hasan Pasha was in continual conflict with the şeyhülislâms, successfully manipulating the dismissal of one of them, Sun’ullâh.
Kurulus Osman Episode 92 English Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series, On the other hand, the grand vizier, Cerrâh Mehmed, seeking to preserve harmony, consulted with the şeyhülislâm on all important state matters. Accusations in a şeyhülislâm’s fetvâ brought about the deposition of sultans and, equally, the downfall of many grand viziers. The şeyhülislâm was the head of the ulema. He petitioned the grand vizier for the appointment, promotion, and dismissal of medrese staff,
and from the sixteenth century he acquired the authority to propose the nomination and dismissal of the kâdîs of important regions, thus effectively gaining control of the entire organization of ulema. In the same way, as the grand vizier was the absolute representative of the sultan’s executive authority, the şeyhülislâm became the absolute representative of the sultan’s religious authority. These various checks prevented the grand vizier’s gaining power equal to the sultan’s; but in his capacity as the absolute deputy of the sovereign,
he had the right to supervise and inspect all state departments, thus maintaining the independence of his administration and the unity of his control. No appointments or dismissals could be made in any office, nor any order of the sultan issued, without the grand vizier’s confirmation; and it became the custom that the sultan should not reject any decision of the imperial council that the grand vizier submitted for his confirmation. The independence of the first vizier was an immutable principle of the near-eastern state. Kurulus Osman 92 Bangla Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series
In a decree, written in his own hand, appointing Murâd Pasha to the grand vizierate, Ahmed I stated, ‘Accepting no one’s recommendation or request, I have conferred on you the grand vizierate and sent you my seal.’ It is said that in 1656 Köprülü Mehmed accepted the grand vizierate on the conditions that the sultan would not reject any proposals which he might submit; that he alone would make all the appointments and dismissals; that the sultan would take no consultant on state affairs other than the grand vizier; that the Palace would protect none of his rivals; and that all calumnies against him would be ignored. Kurulus Osman 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
The second vizier was customarily the candidate for the grand vizierate, but the kap ağas , the vâlide sultan or the sultan’s tutor usually played an important part in the actual selection. The new grand vizier, unable thus to preserve his independence, relied for support on the Janissaries or the ulema or sought to extend his term of office by ingratiating himself with an influential Palace clique.
The grand viziers of autocratic sultans such as Selîm I remained in the shadows, while others such as Gedik Ahmed (grand vizier 1474, vizier 1481–2) or Köprülü Mehmed (1656–61) had dictatorial powers. Kurulus Osman 92 Bangla Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series
Gedik Ahmed’s source of strength was the Janissary corps and Köprülü Mehmed’s Palace. Until the introduction of the kafes system, a new sultan would arrive at the capital with the men who had served in his Palace during his term as a provincial governor. Their attempts to transfer political power into their own hands greatly influenced Ottoman domestic policy. Mehmed the Conqueror’s tutor, Zaganos, vigorously opposed the grand vizier Çandarl Halîl and encouraged the new ruler to besiege Constantinople.
After the conquest, Zaganos had his rival executed and replaced him as the grand vizier. When Selîm II came to the throne he embarrassed the old grand vizier, Sokollu, by acting on the advice of his old tutor. Between 1579 and 1599 the tutor of Murâd III and Mehmed III, Sa’deddîn, was the main voice directing the state’s domestic and foreign policies, the official court historian commenting that, ‘the affairs of the sultanate were totally dependent on his opinion’.
With the institution of the kafes system, the opinion of the vâlide sultan became the main factor in the appointment of viziers. In 1596 Ibrahîm remained grand vizier only on the insistence of Mehmed III’s mother, Safiye Sultan. But none of the vâlide sultans was as influential as Ahmed I’s wife, Kösem Sultan, who in alliance with a faction of Janissaries played a vital part in all changes of grand vizier and in all accessions to the throne until the accession of Mehmed IV.
Until Mehmed IV’s mother, Turhan Sultan, had her strangled in 1651, she controlled all the strings of government. The sultan’s şeyh was another hidden influence determining the government’s decisions. Each sultan had a şeyh who served as his spiritual mentor and who, it was believed, could foretell the future and secure God’s aid, like the shamans who had served the pagan Turkish rulers of central Asia. During the siege of Constantinople, Mehmed II constantly sought the spiritual guidance of his şeyh, Akşemseddîn. Kurulus Osman 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
When he could not forecast the date of the conquest, the şeyh wrote that the soldiers lacked faith and urged the appointment over them of a harsh and severe commander.5 So influential was Murâd III’s spiritual advisor, şeyh Şüccâ – a member of the halvetî order of dervishes – that anyone seeking high office had necessarily to visit him first.
The most famous of these men was Ahmed I’S şeyh, Hüdâî Efendi, who not only encouraged the sultan’s religious fervor but also interfered in politics. He recommended, for example, that a peace settlement be made with the Russian ambassador on the condition that the Russians relinquish the fortresses of Terek, Astrakhan and Kazan; he urged the release of imprisoned kâdîs; and advised that Ahmed Pasha be appointed governor of Egypt.
Public opinion, too, had a greater influence in determining Ottoman policy than has generally been recognized. Already in the second half of the sixteenth century, there was an alliance of interest between the numerous kap Kulu troops and the artisans. Many of the kap kurus had themselves become artisans or traders; others had invested their money in trading ventures and usury. The populace of Istanbul was always ready to riot, such disturbances occurring usually at times of financial and economic distress.
Public opinion would support these uprisings and a fetvâ of the şeyhülislâm would give legal expression to this popular sanction. Typical of this were the uprisings which led to the deposition of Sultan Ibrahîm in 1648, Mehmed IV in 1687, Mustafa II in 1703, Ahmed III in 1730, and Selîm III in 1807. Popular uprisings could usually be successful only with the cooperation of the kap kulu troops. In 1651, however, the people of Istanbul rose against the power of the Janissary junta. Kurulus Osman 92 English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series
Until the seventeenth-century peasant revolts in the provinces were rare since the law forbade the reâyâ to carry arms. But the peasants leaving the land and dispersing was a form of passive resistance which caused the government as much anxiety as uprisings since depriving the state of its sources of revenue and the timar-holders of their sources of income it undermined the military strength of the empire.
Threatened by this flight of peasants from the land, the government often had to take measures favorable to the reâyâ, sometimes even lowering taxation.
The Ottoman sultans’ desire to attract the goodwill of the public was a force determining them to act justly. Watch All Episode
If a ruler was unpopular, the people would start rumors that he did not respect the şeriat or that he drank wine or committed other unlawful acts. The tyrannical Murâd IV was a habitual drinker, and at the same time the most ruthless supporter of the prohibition against alcohol. In order to appear faithful to the şerîat, the sultans would from time to time issue general orders to punish those who neglected their prayers or broke the Ramadan fast and closed down taverns and brothels.
They never failed to attend the mosque on Fridays and frequently distributed alms to the poor and to the dervishes. On the annual Feast of the Sacrifice, thousands of sheep – three thousand in Istanbul alone – were ritually slaughtered and distributed to the poor. The sultan sent a yearly gift worth tens of thousands of gold ducats to Mecca and Medina, and the departure of this treasure train and its procession along the route to the Holy Places occasioned great ceremonies and displays.
The sultans always feared religious leaders, especially the popular şeyhs and dervishes whom they sought to make dependent on their own goodwill or to subdue with stern measures. These şeyhs and dervishes were usually the principal propagandists of opposition movements. For example, during the reign of Mehmed III the sermons of a şeyh in Istanbul so aroused the people that the government banished him from the city, but popular demonstrations forced it to permit his return.
In 1639 Murâd IV executed a şeyh of the nakşbendî order of dervishes, called Mahmûd, who had grown too influential, and in Ilg n he put to death the şeyh of Sakarya who had attracted some seven or eight thousand followers.
The grand vizier’s loss of independence was the main cause of the political crisis in the first half of the seventeenth century. In 1656 Köprülü Mehmed was appointed grand vizier with dictatorial powers, and his son Ahmed followed him in office (1661–76). Under the Köprülü administration, government business was conducted at the grand vizier’s residence, and meetings of the imperial council at the Palace lost their old importance.
Written reports kept the sultan informed. He returned these after adding in his own hand his commands and wishes. With the removal of the effective government to the grand vizier’s residence, the viziers of the imperial council passed into the background, while three officials, directly in the service of the grand vizier, came to the fore. These were the kâhya bey, the grand vizier’s agent in political and military affairs; the çavuş baş, who received complaints and lawsuits in the imperial council; and the reîsülküttâb, who had for a long time been chief secretary to the imperial council and guarded state treaties and regulations.
In meetings at the grand vizier’s residence, each of these officials actually became a member of the government, achieving the status of vizier after 1720. In the nineteenth century, these offices were to become respectively minister of the interior, minister of justice, and minister for foreign affairs. At the same time, the defterdâr’s residence developed to become a large, independent department. On certain days of the week, the defterdâr would take part in meetings held at the grand vizier’s residence. Before taking important decisions the grand vizier would hold general consultative councils.
Kurulus Osman 92 Bangla Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series The Ottoman administrative and bureaucratic practice originated from and continued the ancient traditions of pre-Islamic near-eastern states. The division of functions within the administration was in accord with these traditions. Islamic political theory recognized the ‘Men of the Pen’, beside the ‘Men of the Sword’ and the ‘Men of Religion’, as a pillar of the administration, and in pre-Ottoman Muslim states the head of the government, with the title of the vizier, was usually someone who had achieved distinction in the state’s Chancery or Exchequer.
Scribal art was considered one of the practical sciences. Within the profession, there were two main branches – correspondence and finance – each with its own specialized skills and requiring special training. The clerk received his training in the bureaus themselves, which were organized on an apprentice-master system like any craft guild. For security reasons, the scribal profession was in many eras a closed body. In Umayyad and Abbasid times only local Christian and Persian scribes had sufficient experience in the techniques of finance and administration and for a long time monopolized the public affairs of the caliphate. Watch All Episode
Kalkashandî (1355–1418) distinguished three categories of scribes: those who drew up the orders sent to governors and officials; those who collected state income and ascertained its sources; and those who supervised the appointments and salaries of men engaged in defending the country and the social order. These bureaucratic categories corresponded to Ottoman practice. The first group of clerks served under the reîsülküttâb and his suite, the second worked in the Exchequer, and the third under the nişanc. Kurulus Osman Episode 92 English Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series
The head of the Chancery, the nişancî, often stemmed from the ulema. Many of the clerks of the imperial council were graduates of the Palace, but Ottoman writers of the sixteenth century criticized this practice, regarding the introduction of slaves into the bureaucracy as contrary to tradition and regulations. It was usually the relatives and dependants of clerks who entered the bureaus as şâgirds – apprentices. Here they served for a long time under a kalfa – senior secretary – acquiring the necessary skills and knowledge and developing a particular specialty.
There were also professional secretarial manuals, the oldest of which had been written by Persian secretaries in Abbasid service. The secretaries completed their education in the religious and legal sciences by attending courses at the mosques. The departmental heads – hâcegân – corrected the kalfas’ work, helping them to develop their own skills. The apprentice, as in a guild, became a secretary after he had passed an examination and received the approval of his superiors, who then entered his name in the register of mülâzims – candidates.
There was a fixed number of secretaries in each office. A regulation of 1732, for example, establishes the secretarial staff of the imperial council at fifty secretaries, twenty apprentices, and thirty candidates. If a secretary died, his son, if he was suitable, took his place; otherwise one of the mülâzims received the post. The most important condition for selection was the demonstration of professional ability to the senior secretaries of the bureau. They would then submit the name of their nominee to the grand vizier, who in turn submitted it to the sultan.
When approval was received, the issue of a royal warrant concluded the formalities of appointment. In 1537 there were eighteen secretaries directly employed in drawing up edicts in the imperial council, of whom eleven specialized in political and administrative commands and seven in financial decrees. The bureaus employed both full secretaries and apprentices. By 1568 there were 222 secretaries in the Exchequer departments, with over seven hundred by the end of the eighteenth century. Watch All Episode
Outside the central government a number of commissionerships, such as those of the Mint, customs, or cereals, and a number of military organizations, such as the Janissary corps, gun-foundry, or arsenal, had their own offices. In the provinces, governors, kâdîs’ courts, and numerous important vak fs had their own secretarial staff, and in each fortress, there was a clerk to handle the garrison’s accounts and personnel matters. Kurulus Osman Episode 92 English Subtitle Free | Turkey TV Series
A responsible commissioner, with a secretary to assist him, was appointed for all state undertakings, whether construction, mining, manufacturing or agriculture. Thus the total number of secretaries was far greater than the limited body who worked in the offices of the central government. At the end of the sixteenth century, Âlî Efendi wrote that a number of secretaries earned a precarious living by writing petitions and copying manuscripts. The thousands of registers and literally millions of documents still preserved in Turkish archives are proof that the Ottoman Empire was a bureaucratic state.
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