Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
THE RISE OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle The Muslim world saw the Ottomans as the only power able to defend it from the attacks of western Christianity and readily accepted Ottoman overlordship. In 1517, while Selîm was still in Cairo, a Portuguese fleet entered the Red Sea to attack Jidda and Mecca. Gathering his wealth and property, the Sherif of Mecca prepared to flee to the hills, and the people of the Hejaz begged the Ottoman admiral, Selmân, not to abandon them. Kurulus Osman Episode 82 watch Now
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle Selmân repulsed the Portuguese. When, in the mid-sixteenth century, Muslim rulers in Sumatra and India requested Ottoman aid against the Portuguese, they expressly used in their letters the Sultan’s title ‘Protector of Islam’. The khans of Turkestan made similar pleas to the sultan to prevent the Russians from occupying the Volga basin and cutting their communications with the Holy Places of Islam through the Crimea. Kurulus Osman Episode 82 watch Now
The sultan was to organize expeditions in India and the Volga basin, in order, he would claim, to keep the pilgrimage routes open. The Ottomans naturally sought to exploit this situation for their own political advantage. It was only in the eighteenth century, and again for reasons of political expediency, that they were to revive the classical doctrine of the caliphate. Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle When Süleymân assumed the protectorship of the Islamic world, this was only one aspect of his universal policy. In Europe he refused to recognize Charles V’s right to the title of emperor, acknowledging him only as King of Spain, and encouraged any force which opposed Charles’ claim to sovereignty over the whole of western Christendom. Kurulus Osman Episode 82 watch Now
THE MANNER OF ACCESSION TO THETHRONE
Kurulus Osman Episode 82 In six centuries of rule the Ottoman family produced thirty-six sovereigns, and it is impossible to imagine the empire without the dynasty. Dynastic change in England, for example, did not cause the dissolution of England as a state, but without the Ottoman family there could be no Ottoman Empire. Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle According to Islamic tradition, the sultan had to be a male of full age and sound mind, but there was no law or custom regulating succession to throne. According to old Turkish beliefs the appointment of the sovereign was in the hands of God and, therefore, to establish a fixed law of succession or actively to challenge the enthroned sultan was to oppose the will of God. Kurulus Osman Episode 82
Kurulus Osman Episode 82 Süleymân I told his son, Bâyezîd, who had plotted for the throne that ‘in future you may leave all to God, for it is not man’s pleasure, but God’s will, that disposes of kingdoms and their government. If He has decreed that you shall have the kingdom after me, no man living will be able to prevent it. Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle Whichever Ottoman prince succeeded in securing the empire’s capital, Treasury and archives and in winning the support of the Janissaries, ulema, bureaucracy and Palace officials, was the legitimate sultan. In practice after 1421 the support of the Janissaries became a fundamental factor in the succession. Kurulus Osman Episode 82
The outcome of a fratricidal struggle for the throne was regarded as a divine decree. The defeated princes usually sought refuge in enemy lands, and consequently the Ottoman Empire faced the continual threat of civil war. In his kânûnnâme, therefore, Mehmed the Conqueror codified a practice which in fact had been general since the early years of the empire: ‘For the welfare of the state, the one of my sons to whom God grants the sultanate may lawfully put his brothers to death. Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
A majority of the ulema consider this permissible’. But even this did not prevent civil wars. A major cause of this was the ancient Turkish tradition whereby the sons of the sovereign, on attaining the age of puberty – in Islamic Law, twelve – were sent with their tutors as governors to the old administrative capitals of Anatolia, where they established palaces and governments modelled on those in the capital. Kurulus Osman Episode 82
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle In Seljuk times these princes had been practically independent in their own provinces, but the Ottomans carefully selected the princes’ tutors and other administrators from within the Palace, and these acted under orders from the central government. The princes received only the revenues assigned to them and were closely controlled.
Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle While their fathers were still alive these princely governors attempted to secure governorship close to the capital and to win support within the Palace and among the kap kulu troops. The princes’ impatience sometimes led to civil war. In 1511 Selîm took arms against his brothers, and in 1553 and 1561 Süleymân executed his sons, Mustafa and Bâyezîd, for rebelling against his authority. watch Now
Taking warning from these events, Selîm II (1566–74) and Murâd III (1574–95) sent only their eldest sons to governorships. On the death of their fathers, the latter ascended the throne unopposed and easily disposed of their brothers, who had been confined to the Palace. Kurulus Osman 82 English Subtitle
Murâd III’s first act on entering the Palace was to strangle his five brothers; Mehmed III (1595–1603) had his nineteen brothers executed and ended the practice of sending princes to governorships.
He confined them instead to specially appointed quarters within the harem of the Palace, which came to be known as the kafes – the cage. The princes could not leave the kafes and were prevented from fathering children. Kurulus Osman Episode 82
Living in constant fear of execution, most of them suffered psychological disorders. When Süleymân II (1687–91) was called to the throne he sobbed to the Palace officials who came to escort him from the kafes: ‘If my death has been commanded, say so. Let me perform my prayers, then carry out your order.
Since my childhood, I have suffered forty years of imprisonment. It is better to die at once than to die a little every day. What terror we endure for a single breath.’1 He was taken with difficulty from the kafes and placed on the throne.
Previously, the princes in the provinces had contested openly for the throne and defeat was considered God’s will. The kafes system was contrary to ancient Turkish tradition and, from this, it appears that by the late sixteenth century these traditions had lost their force. (Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle)
The sovereign had become the symbol of an indivisible realm and authority. Palace intrigues, and especially those of the vâlide sultan – the reigning sultan’s mother – came to play an important part in the destiny of the sultanate. Public opinion did not, however, sanction the murder of defenceless children.
When, at the accession of Mehmed III, nineteen coffins containing the bodies of his brothers emerged from the Palace behind their father’s bier, in the words of a contemporary historian, ‘The angels in heaven heard the sighs and lamentations of the people of Istanbul. Kurulus Osman Episode 82
’ On the death of Mehmed III his eldest son, Ahmed I (1603–17), came to the throne but he did not, after hearing the pleas of certain high officials, execute his mentally defective younger brother, Mustafa. When Ahmed died, his sons had not yet reached maturity and Mustafa came to the throne; three months later he was deposed in favour of Ahmed I’s son, Osmân II (1618–22). watch Now
Despite the example of Mustafa, royal fraticide continued during the seventeenth century. Before setting out on his Polish campaign, Osmân II secured a fetvâ sanctioning the execution of his eldest brother, Mehmed. In 1622 the Janissaries murdered Osmân, and his uncle, Mustafa, came to the throne again. watch Now
Mustafa was in turn deposed and Osmân’s brother reigned as Murâd IV (1623–40). Murâd executed three of his brothers, sparing the fourth, Ibrahîm, because he himself had no children. (Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle)
On Murâd’s death, Ibrahîm became sultan. When Mehmed IV (1648–87) was enthroned at the age of seven, he spared his brothers Süleymân and Ahmed. On Mehmed’s deposition, Süleymân became sultan, succeeded, on his death, by Ahmed II (1691–5). They did not execute Mehmed IV’s children, who reigned as Mustafa II (1695–1703) and Ahmed III (1703–30). watch Now
Thus succession by seniority replaced the customary passage of the sultanate from father to son; but no formal regulation governed the succession until the promulgation of the first constitution in 1876… Kurulus Osman Episode 82
To Be continue…..