Tv Series Barbaroslar With English Subtitle Episode 23
Tv Series Barbaroslar With English Subtitle Episode 23
Tv Series Barbaroslar The lateen sails which graced all Mediterranean galleys were Arabic in origin, although it is possible that they had been ﬁrst adopted by the Arabs in the Red Sea from local or Indian vessels. Certainly this simple sailing rig had been used by Europeans as early as the ﬁrst decades of the ﬁfteenth century when the Portuguese caravels (which Prince Henry the Navigator sent out to explore West Africa and the Atlantic) were lateen-rigged. Click Here
The short mast meant that there was little windage aloft, and in bad weather, the long lateen yards could easily be sent down and stowed along the centerline of the vessel. Hoisted on a simple block and tackle, the sails were easy to control, and two or three men could handle a large area of the canvas. The lateen had other advantages over the square sail of the contemporary sailing vessel in that it could be used to a certain extent for working to windward. Tv Series Barbaroslar Click Here
Indeed, until the fore-and-aft rig came into general use in the nineteenth century, the lateen was the most eﬃcient type of sail that man had discovered. In a galleot, it was also possible to compensate for the “crabbing” eﬀect on a shallow- draughted vessel—or a large amount of leeway that she would otherwise make—by having the oarsmen pull on the leeward side. Until comparatively recently, Sicilian ﬁshing boats, manned by some ten men, were still sailing small versions of the galleot and going down to the Kerkenah banks oﬀ North Africa under oars and sail.
In that old haunt of the Barbarossas, the island of Djerba, there are still trading and ﬁshing vessels in commission which diﬀer little from the galleots—except that the main emphasis now is on the sails, and only a few oars are shipped to help make harbor in a calm. Now that Kheir-ed-Din had control of so much of the Algerian coastline and hinterland he had as much wood as was needed for the construction of an eﬃcient ﬂeet. Tv Series Barbaroslar Click Here
Tv Series Barbaroslar Pine as always was an important wood in ship construction, although it seems that ﬁr was often preferred for war galleys. But pine, cypress, and, when available, cedar were all used in galley building. The long keel timber was usually of pine, and onto this was fastened a “false keel” of almost any softwood. This was the expandable keel that was renewed every year since it tended to get torn or damaged every time that the vessel was run up a beach or onto a slipway. The lateen sails which graced all Mediterranean galleys were Arabic in origin, although it is possible that they had been ﬁrst adopted by the Arabs in the Red Sea from local or
The vessels were carvel-built, that is to say, with one plank sitting ﬂush upon another, and not, as in the north, clinker-built, where the planks overlap from the gunwale downwards. The seams between the planks were caulked with tow and other packing material, and the caulking was then held in with wax or tar. The whole outer planking was protected by a coat of tar or wax, or the two mixed together. Tv Series Barbaroslar Click Here
Colouring materials were often mixed with the wax when it was being heated, to improve the vessel’s appearance. This type of encaustic paint was reasonably resistant to the wind and weather. Tv Series Barbaroslar The Mediterranean has always been a bad place for the teredo worm, which loves to tunnel its way into wood (ﬁnally changing an apparently solid piece of timber into nothing more than a hollow honeycomb), and tar was used on the ships’ bottoms as a preventative against this. Tv Series Barbaroslar
Tv Series Barbaroslar The frames, timbers, and planks were often secured with wooden dowels, although both bronze and iron nails were also used. Tv Series Barbaroslar The strongest part of the oared vessel was the bow, where heavy catheads stood out proud from the ship’s side to assist in tearing away the upper works of an enemy when the galley went in to attack. The rambade, or ﬁghting foredeck, also needed additional strengthening, since it was here that the bow-chaser cannon were mounted.
Shallow-draughted as she was, this type of vessel needed some built-in stability to ensure her safety in the short and untidy seas that kick up in the Mediterranean at very short notice. The rowers themselves were disposed about her center of gravity, but she had the windage of her masts to take into consideration, as well as her raised prow and her built-up quarters in the poop. Here the Turks were often more intelligent than their European foes. Tv Series Barbaroslar
living rough and sleeping hard, they did not demand such comfortable quarters aft for their oﬃcers and leaders as did the gentry of Spain and Italy. Nevertheless, all galleys and even galleots needed some type of ballasting. This was provided by gravel or stone carried in the bilges and held in place by planks slotted into wooden uprights. Tv Series Barbaroslar Click Here
These planks could be easily moved, and the ballast quickly transferred from one section of the bilges to another. In this way, by moving ballast from forward to aft, the bows could be elevated slightly—something that was important if the vessel was going in to ram—or, alternatively, if conditions of wind and sea demanded it, the bows could similarly be depressed. Tv Series Barbaroslar
Inevitably, the hold collected a mass of foul bilge water, and this had to be kept down to a reasonable level either by a chain of men baling with buckets or by a simple Archimedean screw worked either by a handle or by a geared-in treadmill.
Drinking water was carried in casks or barricades, or, in the large galleys, in cisterns that were situated down below to act as additional ballast. Primitive though many of the arrangements might seem to a modern eye, it has to be remembered that the sixteenth-century galley was the product of two thousand years of usage and adaptation.
Generations of men had built them, generations had toiled in them, and generations had fought and navigated them. No type of vessel in history has served the human race so long, nor has been so completely understood by its sailors as the Mediterranean galley. It’s tactical handling, and the overall strategy of galley warfare, had been evolved from the Greeks and the Romans, the Byzantines and the Venetians, until there was little room left for improvement.
Only in one direction did Turks like Aruj and Kheir-ed-Din make some slight change in the use of their vessels, and that was in preferring free men at the oars and light, fast galleots rather than the heavier vessels favored by most of the European nations. Between the years 1520 and 1529 Kheir-ed-Din made himself master of nearly all the coast, with the exception of the island fortress of Algiers which still resolutely held out against him. The port of Col, east of Djidjelli near modern Philippeville, fell into his hands, as did the more important harbor and the town of Bone.
Inland he secured his hold over the country by becoming master of. the town and trading center of Constantine. It was during these years that the full realization of what was happening on the North African coast dawned on the naval powers of Europe—and not only those in the Mediterranean.
Even northern countries like England found their merchant ships attacked and their Mediterranean trade declining. If the initial spur to Europe’s transatlantic exploration had been the Turks cutting oﬀ the ancient trade routes to India and the East, this was now given a further impetus by the activities of Kheir-ed-Din and the other captains who swarmed to join his ﬂag on the Algerian coast.
Ocean King Barbaroslar With English Subtitle Episode 22
WRECK OF A FLEET
To Be Continue………