Monday, June 24, 2024

Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Episode 85 With English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series

Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Episode 85 With English Subtitle

Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Episode 85 With English Subtitle

Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman

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Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman When you have many followers, make Holy War and fill your treasury’ for ‘the concern of the common people is always with their bellies … Do not withhold their food and drink.’ The eighth-century Gök-Türk inscriptions express the same view, and Turkish sovereigns regarded it as their duty to offer their subjects, as a symbolic gesture, huge outdoor banquets.

Sovereigns who did not hold these feasts were held in low esteem. Old Ottoman sources relate that in the Ottoman Palace ‘at the time of the afternoon prayer, the band played so that the people might come and eat.’ The royal kitchens dispensed food to anyone who came to the Palace. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Click Here

Mehmed the Conqueror’s grand vizier is quoted as saying that ‘the state must amass wealth, but the ruler must act lawfully so as not provoke his troops by withholding money from them.’ Thus the Ottoman concept of state, while basically derived from the ancient near east, perpetuated certain old Turkish traditions.


The old Indo-Persian Mirror for Princes literature usually likens the sovereign to a shepherd and his subjects to a flock. God entrusts the subjects to the shepherd so that he may protect them and guide them on the right path, and absolute obedience to this sovereign is the duty of the subjects. Click Here


The Ottoman sultans, like all Islamic rulers, considered their subjects, Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Muslim or non-Muslim, as reâyâ – meaning ‘flock’ – and their fermâns frequently reiterate that God had given them the reâyâ in trust. It was the sultan’s duty as head of the Islamic community to lead the reâyâ along the path of the şerîat, the path of God’s decree.


The theory of the caliphate as propounded by Muslim jurists is in many respects the same as the ancient near-eastern theory of the state, but in making the observance of the şerîat a principal duty of the sovereign it wrought a fundamental change in near-eastern concepts. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Click Here


The aim of the government was now to realize the ideals of Islam and authority ceased to be an end in itself. In practice, however, Islamic governments adhered to the older traditions of the near-eastern state which the bureaucrats, who effectively controlled the government, always perpetuated. In the second half of the fifteenth century, an Ottoman bureaucrat and historian, Tursun Bey, wrote that.


Government based on reason alone is called sultanic yasak; government based on principles which ensure felicity in this world and the next is called divine policy, or şerîat. The Prophet preached şerîat. But only the authority of a sovereign can institute these policies. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Without a sovereign men cannot live in harmony and may perish altogether. God has granted this authority to one person only, and that person, for the perpetuation of good order, requires absolute obedience.

Tursun Bey equates the state with the absolute authority of the sovereign and regards justice as essential for its endurance. State and society rest upon law and justice, which Tursun Bey defines as observing moderation in all things and ending oppression. A society without justice cannot survive. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman


The fundamental principles of the near-eastern theory of state had thus remained unchanged down to Ottoman times, despite the influence of the şerîat and of Greek political thought. Ottoman administration was based on these principles, which are evident in all its government offices and in all its state activities.


Six articles attributed to the Sassanid King Chosroes I summarize the principles of equitable government.5 These were to levy taxes according to the peasant’s capacity to pay and to prevent abuses in their collection; to prevent the privileged oppressing the weak and interfering with the lives and property of the people to guard the public highways, to construct caravanserais and bridges and to encourage irrigation; to form an army; to appoint just governors and judges to the provinces, and to prevent attack by foreign enemies.


To fulfill these duties the Sassanids established four branches of the administration – the political branch, the Judiciary, the Treasury, and the Chancery – but the most important part of the government was the sovereign’s assembling the imperial council to hear complaints against the authorities and to rectify injustices. These basic functions of the near-eastern state remained unchanged down to the time of the Ottoman Empire. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Click Here


The same concepts regulated the class system in the near-eastern state. Society fell into two distinct divisions: first, the ruler and the ministers and governors to whom he delegated his authority, and secondly, the taxpayers, the reâyâ. Nasîr al-Dîn of Tus (1201–74), following the old Persian traditions, further divided the ruler’s servants into two groups – the military class, who held political power, and the bureaucrats. These groups did not pay taxes. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman Click Here

The tax-payers were subdivided, according to their economic activity, into farmers, merchants or herdsmen, to which some added the urban artisans. ‘Kalîlah and Dimnah’, a work of Indian origin maintained that if this division of the classes were not rigidly maintained disaster and anarchy would ensue. According to Nizâm al-Mulk’s Siyâsetnâme,6 a twelfth-century manual of statecraft, the government could prevent anarchy only by each person’s remaining within his own class as recorded in official registers.

Supporting his view with quotations from the Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet, the Muslim jurist Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) sought to incorporate this view of social stratification into the şerîat.
The Ottomans maintained the same class divisions, dividing the peoples of a newly conquered region, Muslim or non-Muslim, into the military class and the reâyâ.

In the Balkans in the fifteenth century, they accepted thousands of Christian cavalrymen into the military class despite their religion. Military groups in the Anatolian principalities annexed to the empire similarly received the privileges of the Ottoman military class; but those engaged in trade and agriculture, whether Christian or Muslim, in the Balkans or Anatolia, were considered reâyâ and paid reâyâ taxes.


The military class comprised all who were directly in the sultan’s service, all military groups not engaged in production, men of religion and bureaucrats, and their families, relatives, dependents, and slaves. A class known as the ‘exempted reâyâ’ received certain tax exemptions and privileges in return for particular services to the state. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman


Release from reâyâ status and entry into the military class required a special and rarely granted decree from the sultan. For the son of a peasant to enter the military class he normally had to have certain connections with that class or to fight as a volunteer on the frontier or in the sultan’s campaigns. In appreciation of his services, the sultan could issue a diploma-granting him military status.


Süleymân I, however, revoked the tax exemptions formerly granted to those who had entered the military class in this way and not by descent from military ancestors. For a man to pass from reâyâ to military status was considered a breach of the fundamental principles of the state, since the reâyâ were essential as producers and tax-payers. Ottoman writers of the early seventeenth century regarded the abandoning of this principle as the main cause of the empire’s decline. Watch Turkish Drama Kurulus Osman

To Be continue…..

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2 COMMENTS

  1. […] Kânûn was already an established principle in the near east, in the period immediately before the rise of the Ottomans. Ottoman kânûn originated as fermâns – ‘Whatever the sultan decrees is the sultan’s law’ – and was thus a set of regulations which individual sultans had issued as circumstances required. They had, therefore, to be confirmed whenever a new ruler came to the throne.The fundamental and immutable law was the şerîat, the religious law of Islam. Fermâns always contained a formula stating that the enactment conformed with the şerîat and previously established kânûn. Kurulus Osman 86 Watch Now […]

  2. […] It was in fact the cornerstone of the autocratic and centralizing Ottoman regime. The kânûn-i osmanî, in principle, Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle condemned forced labor and services, commuting them in most cases for cash levies. It introduced a system of taxation that was, in general, simpler and less liable to abuse than the earlier systems of feudal services. Kurulus Osman 85 ENG […]

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