Sunday, April 7, 2024

Kurulus Osman Episode 69

Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

During the Ottoman civil wars, Hungarian influence had increased in Wallachia and Serbia, and in 1427 conflict over the Serbian succession broke out between Hungary and the Ottomans. George Branković was recognized as the Despot of Serbia, with the despotate becoming a buffer state between the Hungarians in Belgrade and the Ottomans in Golubać. The two sides signed a treaty in 1428.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 69 English Subtitle

After the conquest of Salonica in 1430, the Ottomans adopted a more aggressive policy in the Balkans. They clearly understood that the territory south of the Danube would be secure only if it were under their direct control. Therefore, they had to counter Hungarian claims to Serbia, and Venetian claims to the Morea and Albania.

Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

When the Hungarian treaty expired in 1431, Sigismund’s ambassador requested that the sultan recognize the King of Hungary’s suzerainty over Bosnia, Serbia, and Danubian Bulgaria. Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Fružin, a pretender to the Bulgarian throne, had taken refuge with Sigismund. Caught between the rival claims of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, these buffer states struggled for their very existence. Seeing the increasing influence of Hungary in Serbia and Wallachia, the Ottomans, after 1434, pursued a policy of aggression.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Sigismund’s death in 1437 provided them with their opportunity. In the following year, an Ottoman army under the sultan’s command crossed the Danube and advanced as far as Sibiu (Hermannstadt), the administrative center of Transylvania.

Following this show of strength against Hungary, the Ottomans occupied the despotate of Serbia, declaring it an Ottoman province in 1439. In 1440 they tried unsuccessfully to dislodge the Hungarians from Belgrade. In 1441 and 1442, John Hunyadi defeated the Rumelian forces entering Transylvania. The following year, a Hungarian army under his command crossed the Danube and advanced as far as the Balkan mountains, creating panic on the Ottoman side.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 69 English Subtitle

In Anatolia, the Karamanids passed to the attack and occupied the former territory of Hamidili. Murâd returned to a peaceful policy, signing a treaty with Hungary at Edirne on 12 June 1444. The king and the Despot of Serbia endorsed the treaty at Szeged.

The Ottomans conceded the re-establishment of the despotate of Serbia, while the Hungarians agreed not to cross the Danube and not to press their claim to Bulgaria.
Murâd returned to Anatolia and, at the Treaty of Yenişehir in the summer of 1444, ceded the lands in Hamidili to the Karamanids.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

In this way, he was satisfied that he had guaranteed the state’s eastern and western frontiers. The Byzantines, however, were sheltering Orhan, a grandson of Bâyezîd, presenting a threat of civil war which caused grave concern to Murâd. In 1444, while still in good health, he abdicated in favor of his son Mehmed, hoping thus to establish him securely on the throne.

The Byzantines and the pope, not wishing to waste this opportunity, encouraged the Hungarian war party. Ladislas, the King of Hungary and Poland, regarded the peace treaty as invalid and prepared for war. Former local dynasts all over Rumelia took up arms against the Ottomans. One was George Kastriota, known as Iskender Beg, who sought to recover his father, Ivan Kastriota’s legacy in northern Albania.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Many of the panic-stricken people of Edirne fled to Anatolia. Orhan, freed by the Byzantines, went to the Dobrudja, where he attempted to instigate a revolt. The twelve-year-old sultan, Mehmed II, was not in control of events. A power struggle broke out between the grand vizier Çandarl Halîl and the sultan’s tutors, Zaganos, and the beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Şihâbeddîn.

A fire in Edirne destroyed thousands of homes; a combined Hungarian and Wallachian army crossed the Danube and marched through Bulgaria towards the Ottoman capital; a Venetian fleet closed the Dardanelles. During this crisis, the former sultan was summoned to Rumelia.

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Crossing the straits only with the greatest difficulty, Murâd II met the enemy at Varna on 10 November 1444. The Ottoman victory sealed the fate of the Balkans and the Byzantine Empire. Holding the Byzantines responsible for the crisis, the Ottomans laid plans for a final assault on Byzantium.

Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Şihâbeddîn and Zaganos, two old warriors, strongly advocated the plan, thinking that it would enable the young sultan to hold his throne in security. Çandarl Halîl, who had risen from the ranks of the ulema, opposed it, fearing that it would lessen his own power and again place the state in serious difficulties.

Ottoman policy towards Byzantium was thus closely linked with the power struggle. Finally, Çandarl Halîl engineered a Janissary revolt, removed Mehmed II and his advisers from power, and in May 1446, once again brought Murâd II to the throne.

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Murâd spent his second sultanate in campaigns to subdue the Balkan vassals who had revolted in the crisis of 1444. In 1446 he campaigned against the Despot of Morea and, in 1448 and 1450, against Iskender Bey. In 1448 he repulsed Hunyadi’s invasion after a
fierce struggle at Kossovo. When he died on 3 February 1451, the Ottoman Empire had fully recovered from the blow of 1402.

Murâd believed, as his father had done after the crisis of 1416 that the security of his throne depended on preserving the status quo. Although he annexed some of the principalities in western Anatolia, he remained at peace with the Karamanids and the Candarids and was careful not to provoke Timur’s son, Shâhrukh.

Osman Online Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

He soon realized, however, that his policy of reconciliation endangered Ottoman rule in the Balkans, where he was forced to continue fighting. During these wars, the Ottomans quickly adopted from their enemies the superior weapons of the west – cannons and muskets – and the tactic of surrounding their camp on all four sides with carts, a maneuver that Hunyadi had used successfully.

The Ottomans used large cannons in the siege of Constantinople in 1422 and muskets at Varna in 1444. The war with Venice similarly led to the development of the Ottoman navy. In 1442 the Ottomans maintained sixty ships at Gallipoli and a river fleet of eighty to a hundred light vessels on the Danube.

Osman Online Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

The growing strength of the Ottoman navy forced the Venetians to strengthen their own fleet.1 Murâd II’s reign was a period of important economic development. Trade increased, and Ottoman cities such as Bursa and Edirne expanded considerably.

In 1432 the traveller Bertrandon de la Brocquière noted that Ottoman annual revenue had risen to 2,500,000 ducats and that if Murâd II had used all available resources, he could easily have invaded Europe.2 When Murâd II died, the Ottoman Empire was strong enough to allow the young Mehmed II and his advisers, Şihâbeddîn and Zaganos, to realize their schemes of conquest.

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

Mehmed’s principal aim was to revive the empire of his ancestor, Bâyezîd, by bringing all the lands in Europe south of the Danube and all the lands in Asia west of the Euphrates under direct Ottoman rule. Still, unlike his great-grandfather, his first objective was the conquest of Constantinople.

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

He realized this would assure him of the prestige and authority necessary to create an empire. Although he maintained Çandarl in office as grand vizier on his accession, the real power had passed to the war party. After a short campaign against the Karamanids, who on Murâd’s death, had risen in revolt in the summer of 1451, they began preparations for the conquest of Constantinople.

Kurulus Osman Episode 69 English Subtitle

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