HomeKurulus osman English And Bangla SubtitlesKurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা...

Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল After the rout at Ankara, the Ottoman state could well have disintegrated completely, but by 1415 the Ottomans were already able to re-establish their former position in Rumelia and Anatolia. With the capture of Constantinople in 1453,

they realized Bâyezîd I’s imperial ambitions. The central historical problem of the period between 1402 and 1453 is to explain how the Ottoman Empire made this amazing recovery, at a time when civil war, crusader invasions and other crises threatened to destroy it altogether.Bâyezîd’s youngest son, Çelebi Mehmed, established his rule in Anatolia, first in Amasya and then in Bursa, seeking to bring Rumelia and Edirne (Adrianople) under his control. His elder brother,

Çelebi Süleymân (1402–11), ruling in Edirne, attempted to extend his rule to Anatolia. Both realized that an Ottoman state limited to Rumelia or Anatolia could not survive. The local states and rulers in the Balkans and Anatolia took a negative part in this struggle, attempting to preserve the status quo established in 1402. Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Just as the independent principalities of Anatolia had been re- established after 1402, so too in Rumelia the rulers of Byzantium, Serbia, Wallachia and Albania regained some of their lands and began to act independently. In 1403, Süleymân Çelebi signed a treaty with the Byzantines, by which he relinquished some territory on the coast, including Salonica. To preserve the equilibrium, during the interregnum the Byzantine emperor always supported the weakest of the Ottoman princes against the strongest.

When Çelebi Mûsâ’s (1411–13) power in Rumelia became too great, the Byzantines helped Çelebi Mehmed to cross to the Balkans. The Despot of Serbia, too, made an alliance with Mehmed, assisting him in his final victory. However, when he annexed some of the Anatolian principalities and reduced others to vassal status, Byzantium and the Balkan princes began to regard him as a threat. Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

In 1416, Venice, Byzantium and Wallachia adopted such an aggressive policy that the Ottoman state, reunited under Mehmed, again faced the danger of dismemberment and destruction.While Mehmed’s brother, Mustafa, incited by Byzantium and Wallachia, led a revolt against him in Rumelia, on 29 May 1416, the Venetian fleet destroyed an Ottoman naval force at Gallipoli.

The Prince of Wallachia, Mirčea, first encouraged Mustafa and later protected Şeyh Bedreddîn who led a dangerous revolt in western Anatolia and the region of the Dobrudja and Deliorman on the Rumelian frontier. Mirčea tried to gain control of this region. Çelebi Mehmed forced Mustafa to seek refuge with the Byzantines, and in the autumn of 1416 suppressed Şeyh Bedreddîn’s revolt.

He saw the necessity of peace with Byzantium and signed a treaty, according to which the emperor was to keep Mustafa imprisoned, while he for his part promised to maintain the status quo. Meanwhile, in Anatolia, Timur’s son Shâhrukh threatened anyone who might attempt to reverse the situation which his father had established.

Mehmed petitioned Shâhrukh, presenting himself as his loyal vassal and claiming that he attacked the principalities only because they prevented his waging a Holy War. In the Balkans, Mehmed attacked only Mirčea, driving him to the other side of the Danube, making Giurgiu, in 1419, an advanced Ottoman outpost on the left bank of the river.

After 1416, realizing that it was still too early to revive the centralized empire of Bâyezîd, Mehmed pursued a policy of conciliation. The events of this period show that influential Anatolian families, who held the land as vak f – pious foundation – or emlâk – freehold property – and the tribes which formed the fighting forces, opposed the centralized administration of the Ottomans.

Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান এপিসোড ৬৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle

Against the Ottomans they supported the former dynasties who guaranteed their own privileges. The local dynasties in the Balkans were in a similar position. The population of the marches, continuing the old traditions of the frontier state, equally opposed centralization, supporting pretenders to the sultanate and playing a vital part in the civil wars. In the fifteenth century, Dobrudja-Deliorman, the most densely populated frontier region, became a hotbed of rebellion.

There were, however, powerful factors working in favour of Ottoman unity and the centralized administration. The most potent factor was the Ottoman kul – slave – system. In particular the Janissary corps, whose numbers had risen to six or seven thousand, gave the Ottoman sultan an undisputed superiority over his rivals. In the provinces the Ottomans created a corps of military administrators of slave origin and an army of sipâhîs, who greatly strengthened the central authority which they represented and which
guaranteed their own status.

The peasantry and merchants, too, benefited more from the centralized Ottoman administration than from the former feudal regimes. A final factor was the immense prestige of the Ottoman sultan in the eyes of the Muslim population; he was the greatest leader of the Holy War, a status which brought with it important moral and material advantages. Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Three years of crisis followed the death of Mehmed I in 1421. The Byzantines freed Prince Mustafa, who agreed to cede Gallipoli. All Rumelia recognized him as sultan. The Janissaries and the ulema supported Mehmed’s seventeen-year-old son, Murâd, who had ascended the throne in Bursa, the Ottoman capital. In 1422 he defeated his uncle, who had marched against him from Rumelia at the head of the frontier lords.

Murâd II gathered all his forces, and between 2 June and 6 September 1422 besieged Byzantium, which had supported his rival. Thereupon, all the subject princes in Anatolia rose in revolt, recapturing all Mehmed I’s hard-won conquests. They encouraged Murâd’s younger brother, Mustafa, to revolt and surrounded Bursa.

Murâd raised the siege of Constantinople, defeated his brother on 20 February 1423 and punished the Anatolian rulers who had incited him. He suppressed the principalities of western Anatolia, except for those of the Candarids and the Karamanids. The young sultan had by now resolved the state’s internal problems and restored the situation to what it had been before his father’s death; he then turned his attention to the states which threatened his Balkan possessions.

The Hungarians were profiting from Ottoman pressures to extend their influence on the lower Danube, while the Venetians were doing the same in order to gain possession of the Byzantine lands. During the siege of Constantinople the Venetians had opened negotiations with the Byzantines for the control of Salonica and the Morea.

In the summer of 1423 the Byzantines ceded Salonica, then under an Ottoman blockade, to Venice. Fearing that they would also cede Constantinople, the Ottomans concluded an agreement with the Byzantines. In return for an annual tribute and the cession of territory taken in 1403, they agreed not to attack Byzantium.

At the same time, Murâd II made peace with the Anatolian rulers and gathered all his forces to attack the Venetians in Salonica. The Venetian war continued until the Ottoman conquest of Salonica in 1430. Kurulus Osman Episode 68 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৮ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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