Tuesday, June 18, 2024

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle For Free To Watch| Turkey TV Series

Kurulus Osman 83 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

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THE RISE OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle When a sultan died all appointments and legal regulations were considered null and void until the new sultan confirmed them, and since there was then no legally constituted authority the kap kulu troops would obey no one and give themselves up to plunder and destruction. Sometimes the interregnum lasted for as long as two weeks and the Palace sought to conceal the fact of a sultan’s death until the new sovereign had been enthroned. The introduction of the kafes system, naturally, ended this situation.


The historian Selânikî described Mehmed III’s enthronement in 1595, and a summary of his description will serve to show the manner of accession to the throne. When Murâd III died the vâlide sultan hid the fact and, secretly, sent word to her son Mehmed, then governor in Manisa. Mehmed hastened to Istanbul, and when he entered the Palace a cannon salute announced to the city the new sultan’s accession. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

A command sent to the mosques ordered that Mehmed’s name be mentioned in the hutbe. All dignitaries of state were summoned to the Palace, and after prayers they took the ceremonial oath of allegiance to the sultan. While the sultan, dressed in mourning, sat on a throne before the Gate of Felicity at the entrance to the Inner Palace, the çavuşes saluted him, crying ‘My Sultan, may you and your realms endure a thousand years. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle The dignitaries of state, the ulema, and commanders of the kap kulu divisions, one by one came forward and offered their allegiance, prostrating themselves before the throne. Then the sultan retired and changed his mourning clothes. He was present at his father’s obsequies and burial. Members of the late sultan’s family – twenty- seven daughters, seven pregnant concubines, and concubines with whom the late sultan had shared his bed – were removed to the Old Palace together with their tutors and eunuchs. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle The officials who had accompanied the new sovereign from Manisa received most of the important functions in the palace. Three days after accession, 1,300,000 gold ducats, drawn for the traditional accession gratuity from the Inner Treasury, were distributed to the sultan’s army, 550,000 ducats going to the Janissaries. (After the enthronement of Selîm II each Janissary had received two thousand akçes and each of the sultan’s cavalry a thousand akçes as an accession gratuity.) The senior pages of the Inner Service received posts outside the palace.

To show himself to his subjects the sultan attended the Friday prayer at the mosque of Hagia Sophia. A new government was established. The sultan appointed Ferhâd Pasha grand vizier, replaced the defterdârs – the heads of the Treasury Department – and made his tutor a vizier. Two weeks after his succession the new sultan, accompanied by the ministers of the realm, proceeded in state up the Golden Horn to the tomb of Eyyûb Ensârî, a Companion of the Prophet, there to be girt with the Sword of Osmân.

Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle Sacrificial sheep were distributed to the poor. Returning by land, the sultan visited the tombs of his ancestors Selîm I, Mehmed II, Prince Mehmed, Süleymân I and Bâyezîd II. The recital of prayers and the distribution of alms concluded the coronation ceremonies. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


With the bîat – the oath of allegiance – the sultan was considered legally enthroned. The bîat, an old Islamic institution, signified the recognition of a new caliph and a solemn promise of obedience by a group representing the community of Muslims. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

A new Ottoman sultan informed foreign rulers of his accession in bombastic letters, and the fermâns, which he sent to the governors and kâdîs in his empire, usually contained the formula: With God’s help, I have gained the sultanate. On this date, with the perfect concurrence of the viziers, ulema, and people of all stations, high and low, I have ascended the throne of the sultanate that has come down to me from my forefathers. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle The hutbe has been recited and coins struck in my name. As soon as you receive this decree, proclaim my enthronement to the people in all cities and towns, have my name mentioned in the hutbes in the mosques, have cannon salutes fired from the citadels, and festively illumine the cities and towns. Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle


Then all diplomas of the title were renewed in the name of the new sultan and a general cadastral survey was ordered, showing the sources of taxation throughout the empire, the legal status of all subjects, and their tax-exemptions. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


Various powerful factions within the empire, such as the frontier forces, the Janissaries, the ulema or Palace cliques, were instrumental in the selection of who was to occupy the throne. The ahîs in the period when the empire had been a frontier principality, and the frontier lords during the interregnum of 1402–13, had been important in this respect. Later, Murâd II’s uncle and brother were to challenge him for the throne but the young Murâd, through the support of the Janissaries and the influential Şeyh Emir Sultan of Bursa, and through his winning over the frontier lords, defeated his two rivals.

In 1446 the Janissaries, at the instigation of the grand vizier, Halîl Pasha forced Mehmed II to abdicate but Murâd returned to the throne only when convinced that this was the wish of the Janissaries. In 1481 the Janissaries, acting on the orders of Ishâk Pasha and Gedik Ahmed Pasha, were instrumental in placing Bâyezîd II on the throne, forcing him to accept a number of conditions for the administration.

During the struggle for the throne in 1511, each of the princes sought to win the Janissaries to his cause with promises of increased salaries. Although the sultan and the grand vizier preferred Prince Ahmed, it was Selîm, who had the support of the Janissaries, who finally forced his father to abdicate and seized the throne. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


To preserve their authority, sultans and grand viziers had to gain the goodwill of the Janissaries, whom only strong-willed sultans such as Mehmed the Conqueror or Selîm I could effectively control.
On the other hand, grand viziers such as Çandarlî Halîl, Gedik Ahmed or Yemişçi Hasan, who had the support of the Janissaries, could exercise unchallenged authority. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


With the institution of the kafes, the Janissaries came to be tools in the intrigues of the vâlide sultan and the harem ağas – the chief black eunuch of the Palace – and the grand viziers became the playthings of these two forces. From the seventeenth century, the şeyhülislâms and the ulema often made common causes with the Janissaries, gaining the power to overthrow viziers and sultans.

To give their revolts a semblance of legality, the Janissaries needed the şeyhülislâm’s fetvâ. The şeyhülislâm was sometimes merely an instrument in these power struggles but their fetvâs usully reflected public opinion. The deposition of Sultan Ibrahim (1640–48) is a case in point. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle


Ibrahîm came to the throne after long imprisonment in the kafes, and to demonstrate his authority he began to issue excessively arbitrary commands. The crisis in the Venetian war and his mad excesses turned public opinion against the sultan and stirred the Janissaries into revolt. With the şeyhülislâm at their head, the ulema went to the mosque of Sultan Ahmed, and joining forces with the rebels took the government into their own hands and chose a grand vizier.

The vâlide sultan in the Palace had no choice but to support the insurgents. Going to the Palace, the ulema invited Ibrahîm to abdicate. In a fetvâ they accused him of violating the şerîat, of devotion to his own pleasures to the neglect of affairs of state, of tolerating corruption, of inaction in the face of the enemy, of unlawfully seizing the wealth of merchants, of unjust executions and allowing the harem to influence government. Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle

They claimed that in Islamic law these offenses rendered Ibrahîm ineligible as caliph (Mehmed IV, Ahmed III and Selîm III were later accused and deposed in the same manner). With the cooperation of the vâlide sultan, they placed Ibrahîm’s seven-year-old son on the throne as Mehmed IV. Kurulus Osman With English Subtitle


Ibrahîm resisted, crying out to the şeyhülislâm who had deposed him, ‘Did I not appoint you to this high office’. The şeyhülislâm replied, ‘No, God appointed me.’ The sultan turned for help to the ağa of the Janissaries, who merely told him that all the people had turned against him; Ibrahîm was left imprecating, ‘Oh my God, suppress these tyrants. Kurulus Osman 83 With English Subtitle

They have united against me and rebelled.’ They confined him to a narrow room in the Palace and later obtained from the şeyhülislâm a fetvâ approving his execution since they feared that Palace officials might try to bring him to the throne once more. The ulema came to the Palace again, where the courtiers, wishing to have no part in the matter, wept and took flight. With the Koran in his hand, Ibrahîm cried out, ‘Behold! God’s book! By what writ shall you murder me?’ The executioners hesitated in carrying out the order, but urged by the ulema finally strangled the sultan with the bowstring.

To Be continue…..

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5 COMMENTS

  1. […] “The Turks are the best for this work, being vigorous, enduring, uncomplaining, and often well-trained (having already been oarsmen in Turkish galleys) … The inhabitants of the Barbary Coast [i.e. Moors, Berbers, and Arabs] are nowhere near as good as the Turks, being of an awkward and nervous temperament, and inclined to dogged resistance and invincible stubbornness. King Barbaroslar […]

  2. […] Ottoman law attached great importance to precedent and gave wide discretionary powers to the judges, whom fermâns frequently instruct simply to act in accordance with ‘the law that is customarily applied’. The law of Silistra, dating from the period of Süleyman I, states that: In a situation concerning which the law contains no clear, written command, the kadı should officially refer the matter to the capital. Acting in accordance with the command that arrives, he should make a decision to solve the problem. He should record this decision in his register and act according to it in similar situations. The sultan’s official diploma appointed the kâdîs to administer and execute both şerîat and kânûn. Kurulus Osman 87 English Subtitle They had at their disposal collections of sultanic law, which did not have to be officially certified copies. The kadîs merely recorded in their official registers the legislative orders which they had received and with which they were required to act conformably. They could if they wished indicate these modifications in the copies of the kânûnnâmes in their possession. Ottoman law was thus in a state of continuous development, and the hundreds of annotated kânûnnâmes that have come down to us are a valuable source for its history. Kurulus Osman 83 ENG […]

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