Sunday, April 7, 2024

Kurulus Osman Episode 65

Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 65 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman Episode 65 With Bangla & English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series In the early fourteenth century, violent internal crises were shaking the great empires situated between the Oxus and the Danube – the Ilkhanid Empire in Iran, the Golden Horde in eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and western Anatolia.

By the end of the same century, the descendants of Osmân, a frontier gâzî and founder of the Ottoman dynasty, had established an empire stretching from the Danube to the Euphrates. The ruler of this empire was Bâyezîd I (1389–1402), known as ‘Y ld r m’, the Thunderbolt.

Kayifamiytv Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

At Nicopolis in 1396, he had routed a crusader army of Europe’s proudest knights; he had defied the Mamlûk sultanate, the most powerful Islamic state, and captured its cities on the Euphrates. Finally, he challenged the great Timur, the new ruler of central Asia and Iran. Kurulus Osman Episode 65 With Bangla & English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series

This first period of Ottoman history presents the problem of how Osmân Gâzî’s small frontier principality, dedicated to a Holy War against Christian Byzantium, grew to be an empire of such power and extent. One theory maintains that by accepting Islam and uniting with the Muslims, the Greek population of the Marmara basin revived the Byzantine Empire as a Muslim state.

Kayifamiytv Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

Scholars familiar with Eastern historical sources now recognize this theory as groundless speculation. These historians maintain that the origins of the Ottoman Empire must be sought in the political, cultural, and demographic developments of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Anatolia. Kurulus Osman Episode 65 With Bangla & English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series

1 Kurulus Osman Episode 65 With Bangla & English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series The Mongol invasions of the Muslim Near East from the 1220s mark the first stage in these developments. After the Mongol victory at the Battle of Kösedağ in 1243, the Seljuk sultanate of Anatolia became a vassal state of the Ilkhanids of Iran. The immediate result of the Mongol invasions was the westward migration of the Turcomans, powerful nomadic Turkish tribes. kurulus osman season 3

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

These had come first from central Asia to Iran and eastern Anatolia and now, once again, they moved westwards, concentrating on the frontier between Byzantium and the Seljuk sultanate in the mountainous regions of western Anatolia. In Anatolia in 1277, there was an uprising against the idolatrous Mongols. Kurulus Osman Episode 65 With Bangla & English Subtitle | Turkey TV Series

Muslim Mamlûk forces entered Anatolia to assist the rebels, but the Mongols cruelly suppressed the uprising. Thereafter they kept forces permanently stationed in Anatolia, tightening their grip on the country. Nevertheless, there were frequent revolts and Mongol recriminations in the following half-century. kurulus osman season 3

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

The frontier region became a place of refuge for troops and political figures fleeing the Mongol government and, simultaneously, a place where many destitute villagers and townsmen sought a new life and future.

As a result, the population of the frontier districts increased. Seeking an opportunity to settle the rich plains on the Byzantine side of the border, the restless frontier nomads incited men to a gazâ, a Holy War against Byzantium. Warriors gathered around gâzî leaders of various origins, and their raids on Byzantine territory became increasingly frequent.

Kayifamiy tv Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

Between 1260 and 1320, these gâzî leaders who organized the warlike Turcomans founded independent principalities in western Anatolia, in the lands they had wrested from Byzantium. The contemporary Byzantine historian Pachymeres records that the Palaeologi, who had recaptured Constantinople only in 1261, was preoccupied with Balkan affairs due to the consequent neglect of the Asiatic frontiers

and thus making way for Turcoman inroads. In the last decade of the thirteenth century, the raids of these Turcoman gâzîs in western Anatolia amounted almost to a general invasion. Osmân Gâzî, of all the beys, held territory furthest to the north and closest to Byzantium and the Balkans. According to Pachymeres, in about 1302 Osmân Gâzî laid seige to Iznik (Nicaea), the former Byzantine capital.

Kayifamiy tv Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

The emperor sent against him a mercenary army of two thousand men, which he ambushed and defeated at Baphaeon in the summer of 1302. His defeat of an imperial army spread his fame. Ottoman and contemporary Byzantine sources described how gâzîs from throughout Anatolia flocked to his standard; as in other frontier principalities they took the name of their leader and became known as Osmanl s.

The prospect of easy conquest and settlement attracted fresh waves of settlers of various origins from central Anatolia. It was after this victory of 1302 that the Ottoman principality became truly established. The ideal of gazâ, Holy War, was an important factor in the foundation and development of the Ottoman state.

Turk tv Series Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

Society in the frontier principalities conformed to a particular cultural pattern, imbued with the ideal of continuous Holy War and continuous expansion of the Dârülislâm – the realms of Islam – until they covered the whole world. Gazâ was a religious duty, inspiring every kind of enterprise and sacrifice.

In frontier society all social virtues conformed to the ideal of gazâ. The advanced civilization of the hinterland, with its religious orthodoxy, scholastic theology, palace literature composed in an artificial literary language, and şerîat law, gave way in the frontier lands to a popular culture, characterised by heretical religious orders, mysticism, epic literature and customary law.

Turk tv Series Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

In the principalities of Anatolia, Turkish became for the first time the administrative and literary language. Frontier society was both tolerant and complex. A common background brought the Byzantine frontier troops, the akritai, into close contact with the muslim gâzîs. Mihal Gâzî, a Greek frontier lord who accepted Islam and cooperated with Osmân’s warriors, is a famous example of the process of assimilation.

Holy War was intended not to destroy but to subdue the infidel world, the dârülharb. The Ottomans established their empire by uniting Muslim Anatolia and the Christian Balkans under their rule and, although continuous Holy War was the fundamental principle of the state, the empire emerged, at the same time, as protector of the Orthodox Church and millions of Orthodox Christians.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 65 English Subtitle

Islam guaranteed the lives and property of Christians and Jews, on the conditions of obedience and payment of a poll tax. It allowed them free exercise of their own religions and to live according to their own religious laws. Living in a frontier society and mixing freely with Christians, the Ottomans applied these principles of Islam with the greatest liberality and tolerance.

During the early years of the empire the Ottomans pursued a policy of attempting to secure the voluntary submission and confidence of the Christians, before resorting to warfare.
The protective administration of the Islamic state, with its religious laws and guarantees of tolerance, succeeded the terrifying raids of the gâzîs.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 65 English Subtitle

Furthermore, protecting the peasantry as a source of tax revenue was a traditional policy of the near-eastern state that encouraged an attitude of tolerance. Income from the poll-tax haraç formed a large portion of Ottoman state revenue, just as it had constituted an important part of the revenue of the early Islamic caliphate.

The Ottoman Empire was thus to become a true ‘Frontier Empire’, a cosmopolitan state, treating all creeds and races as one, which was to unite the Orthodox Christian Balkans and Muslim Anatolia in a single state. The gâzî principalities of western Anatolia soon adopted the traditions and institutions of the Seljuk sultanate. Cities such as Kastamonu, Karahisar or Denizli, established in the old Seljuk frontier districts, became centres of Seljuk civilization.

Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

Administrators and scholars brought the traditions of Islamic statecraft and civilization from these towns and the cities of central Anatolia to Milas, Balat, Birgi, Izmir, Manisa and Bursa, which had become the capitals of the gâzî principalities established on the former Byzantine territory. Each principality became a small sultanate.

For example, Orhan, the son of Osman, struck his first silver coins in Bursa in 1327 and established a medrese in Iznik in 1331; in 1340, he created a trading centre in Bursa, with the construction of a bazaar and a bedesman, an enclosed market for the sale of valuable goods. The Arab traveller Ibn Ba u a2 visited Bursa in about 1333 and described it as ‘a great city with fine bazaars and broad streets.

Kurulus Osman Episode 65 English Subtitle

This was the general social and cultural background to the foundation of the Ottoman and other frontier principalities. Holy War and colonization were the dynamic elements in the Ottoman conquests; the administrative and cultural forms adopted in the conquered territories derived from the traditions of near-eastern politics and civilization.

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Mavlana Celaleddin Rumi English subtitles


  1. […] The tradition attempts to show a legitimate Islamic origin for Osman’s authority. According to the same account, Osmân proclaimed his independence after his famous victory at Baphaeon in 1301 and had the hut read in his own name. This again is a later tradition, invented to legitimize the royal authority of the Ottoman dynasty; but there can be no doubt that this victory was the most important fact in bringing Osman into the historical limelight. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now […]


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