Wednesday, December 6, 2023

Kurulus Osman Episode 66

Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

02. FROM FRONTIER PRINCIPALITY TO EMPIRE 1354–1402

In the 1350s, the Ottoman state was no more than one of many frontier principalities. Still, events after 1352 so firmly established its superiority over the others that, within thirty years, they had become Ottoman vassals. The crucial event was the Ottomans’ gaining a foothold in the Balkans, with prospects of limitless expansion towards the West.

The initial crossing from Anatolia into Europe was a difficult task since the Dardanelles were in Christian hands, and any force which the Ottomans might land in Thrace would be unable to hold out and would be annihilated by the Byzantines. The principality of Karesi, lying on the eastern side of the Dardanelles, resolved the problem for the Ottomans.
A series of events led up to this Ottoman success.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 66 English Subtitle

A struggle for the throne of Karesi in 1345 gave Orhan an opportunity to annex the principality. The troops from Karesi, which had entered Ottoman service, began to advocate an expedition across the Dardanelles and, under the command of Orhan’s son, Süleymân, the commander of the western frontier, they prepared for the venture. Events were on their side. In 1346, Orhan had allied with John V Cantacuzenus, a claimant to the Byzantine throne, and had married John’s daughter, Theodora.

This allowed the Ottomans to intervene in the domestic problems of Byzantium and participate in the war in Thrace. When, in 1352, Süleymân went to Adrianople, to the assistance of Cantacuzenus against Serbian and Bulgarian forces, he took possession of Tzympe on the Eastern shore of the Gallipoli isthmus.

Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

Despite the insistent requests of Cantacuzenus, he refused to evacuate the fortress. He began to reinforce this bridgehead with fresh troops from Anatolia while laying siege to the fortress of Gallipoli. On the night of 1– 2 March 1354, an earthquake destroyed the walls of Gallipoli and other fortresses in the area; Süleymân’s forces immediately occupied these strong points.

He repaired the forts and garrisoned them with troops from Anatolia, firmly establishing the Ottomans on European soil. The event aroused great anxiety in Byzantium and the West.
Christian world. In August 1354, the Venetian bailo in Constantinople wrote that Constantinople, faced with this danger, was prepared to place itself under the protection of a powerful Christian state; in Europe, there were plans for a crusade, intended not to recapture Jerusalem but to save Constantinople from the Ottomans.

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 66 English Subtitle

the project for the union of the Latin and Greek Churches was taken up again with renewed zeal. Gregory Palamas, the Archbishop of Salonica, whom the Ottomans captured in 1354 after the conquest of Gallipoli, reported his captors as having told him that the continued advance of Islam from east to west was clear proof that God aided them and that Islam was the true religion

1 To strengthen his European bridgehead, Süleymân transported Muslims, particularly nomads who could easily be resettled, from Anatolia to Europe. New Turkish villages were established and the frontiers, under the general command of Süleymân, were organized into right, left and centre marches, each under the authority of a gâzî lord. The Ottoman raids continued and the area of Ottoman occupation expanded.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

However, Süleymân’s sudden and tragic death in 1357 and the Phocaeans’ capturing Orhan’s youngest son, Halîl, forced Orhan to make peace with Byzantium. Events encouraged the Byzantines to attempt to regain Thrace by diplomatic means. Süleymân’s conquests were threatened, and the frontier forces were anxious and restless.

When Halîl was released in 1359, the gâzîs realized that to delay action was to invite defeat and necessitate the evacuation of Europe. The sultan’s son, Murâd, the commander of the Gallipoli march, and his tutor Lala Şâhîn, a dedicated warrior, began an offensive aimed at the eventual capture of Adrianople.

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

In the first year they took the fortresses along the Maritsa valley and those on the road from Constantinople to Adrianople, thus cutting off the supply lines to the city. In 1361 the final sortie by the defending forces failed and Adrianople, the capital of Thrace, surrendered in the same year.

The conquests in Thrace followed the same pattern as those in Anatolia. In the face of continued gâzî raids, the local Greeks took refuge in the citadels. The inhabitants of towns which submitted voluntarily were left unmolested; if the inhabitants resisted, they were forced to leave their town to the Turks. The Ottoman government encouraged Turks from Anatolia, sometimes by forcible deportation, to settle the newly conquered lands.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

Dervishes, too, founded innumerable zâviyes – hospices, which were later to become the nuclei of new Turkish villages. Turkish colonization rapidly followed the conquests in Thrace, creating a firm base for future Ottoman expansion in Europe. Geographical conditions determined the pattern of Ottoman conquest in the Balkans. They followed the direction of the historic Via Egnatia towards the west, reaching the Albanian coast in 1385, by way of Serres, Monastir and Okhrida.

The local lords in Macedonia and Albania accepted Ottoman suzerainty. A second line of advance was against Thessaly, with the port and city of Salonica falling in 1387; a third followed the road from Constantinople to Belgrade and, in 1365, the Maritsa valley came, with little resistance, under Ottoman control.2 Crossing the Balkan passes, in 1385, they entered the Morava valley by way of Sofia and Nish, and in the following year reduced the kingdom of Serbia to vassalage.

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

The gâzîs on the left flank followed the Tundzha valley, crossing the Balkan range through the Karnobad Pass. In 1372 the Despot of the Dobrudja and the King of Bulgaria became Ottoman vassals. By now the Ottomans controlled the main routes in the Balkan peninsula and, as they had done after the conquest of Gallipoli, they brought nomads from Anatolia, including powerful yürük groups, and settled them along the main highways and in the surrounding mountainous regions.

The principal Ottoman cities in the Balkans were originally frontier settlements along the main routes of advance. Densely populated Turkish colonies were established in the frontier regions of Thrace, the Maritsa Valley and the Tundzha Valley. The local lords bordering on Ottoman territory in the Balkans accepted the sovereignty of the Ottoman sultan, now master of the peninsula.

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

It is not difficult to account for the ease of Ottoman conquest in the Balkans. The Ottoman invasion coincided with a time of political fragmentation when many independent kings, despots and lords of small Balkan principalities did not hesitate to seek outside help in the settlement of their local disputes.

Amid the anarchy prevailing in the Balkans, the Ottomans only pursued a consistent policy, and only they possessed the military strength and centralized authority necessary for its execution. The Ottomans possessed another great advantage in the Janissary corps, the first standing army in Europe

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

The sultan had formed the corps from prisoners of war after the capture of Adrianople, and it was directly under his command. At the same time, in every Balkan state, there was a faction ready to ally itself with the Hungarians or other Latin Christians and a faction ready to cooperate with the Ottomans. In general, the aristocracies, the upper ranks of the priesthood, men of letters and courtiers looked to western Christendom for assistance.


The Greek Orthodox populations were fanatically opposed to the domination of the Italians and all Latin influences; and the Ottomans who supported them in their struggles soon began to regard the Orthodox Christians as vassals. Between 1346 and 1352 the Ottomans had entered Thrace as allies of John Cantacuzenus; again in 1356–66, when the King of Bulgaria was hard pressed by the Byzantines, Hungarians and Wallachians, his Ottoman allies sent him reinforcements.

Turk Tv Series Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

The Ottomans respected the principles of feudalism. They at first, demanded only a small yearly tribute from vassal princes as a token of their submission to the Islamic state. They later demanded that a vassal prince’s son should be held hostage, that the prince should come to the Palace once a year to swear allegiance, and that he should send auxiliary troops on the sultan’s campaigns.

Vassal princes were required to treat the sultan’s friends and enemies as their own. If the vassal failed in these duties, his lands would again be declared dârülharb open to the merciless raids of the gâzîs. After the Pope’s failure to organize, on the condition of the union of the Orthodox Church with Rome, a crusade to relieve Byzantium, and after the rout of the Serbian princes at Chermanon in 1371, the Balkan princes one by one accepted Ottoman suzerainty.

Turk TV Series Kurulus Osman Episode 66 English Subtitle

It was after this Ottoman victory that the Byzantine emperor became virtually an Ottoman vassal, with the members of the Palaeologus family seeking the sultan’s support to hold the Byzantine throne. The other Balkan rulers followed the Byzantine example.

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1 COMMENT

  1. […] At the same time, dervish orders dominated the spiritual life of the frontiers, and consequently, a mystic origin was also sought for Ottoman political power. The earliest accounts show Osman receiving sanctification from Şeyh Edebali, who was probably the head of an ahî fraternity. Predicting that Osman’s descendants would rule the world, Şeyh Edebali girded him with a gaze’s sword. Osman also had the foresight to marry the daughter of Edebali, the most influential man on the frontier. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now […]

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