Wednesday, June 19, 2024

Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 73 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭৩ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Kurulus Osman Episode 73 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭৩ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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04. THE DEFINITIVE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, 1453–1526

This period of development created the conditions necessary for the great conquests of Selîm I and Süleymân I. Bâyezîd also modernised the Ottoman army and navy; it was largely the use of firearms which enabled Selîm to achieve his decisive victories against Ismaîl in Iran and against the Mamlûks of Egypt.5 Selîm I (1512–20) one by one eliminated his brothers who were his rivals for the throne.

He imprisoned and executed some forty thousand partisans of Shah Ismaîl in Anatolia and then attacked Ismaîl himself, denouncing him as a shiite heretic. Ismaîl replied, as Uzun Hasan had done, by reminding Selîm of Timur. Selîm caught up with Ismaîl’s army in eastern Anatolia and won a decisive victory at Çaldîran on 23 August 1514.

This victory temporarily subdued the K z lbaş threat and allowed Selîm to annex to the Ottoman Empire the mountainous region from Erzurum to Diyarbekir. In 1516–17 the local dynasties and tribal chieftains in this area recognized Ottoman suzerainty. Anatolia was now secure against invasion from the east, and the routes to Azerbaijan, the Caucasus and Baghdad were open to the Ottomans.

But at the same time, Turcoman tribes from Anatolia, in particular from eastern Anatolia, began a mass migration to Iran and Azerbaijan, where they served as the main force in the Safavid armies. Selîm’s invasion of the principality of Dulkadir in the following year made a conflict with the Mamlûks of Egypt inevitable.

The Mamlûk rulers, a military caste descended from Turkish and Circassian slaves, who had ruled Egypt and Syria for two and a half centuries, were at this time hard pressed in the south by the Portuguese and requested naval aid from the Ottomans.

Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 73 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 73 English Subtitle


The entire Arab world, alarmed by Portuguese attacks in the Red Sea, fixed their hopes on the Ottoman sultan, the great gâz ruler. In 1516 the Sherif of Mecca, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, proposed to send a delegation to Selîm I.

Al-Ghawrî, the Mamlûk sultan, prevented it; but it is likely that at that time the Arab lands were prepared to accept Ottoman rule, and when Selîm marched against the Mamlûks he announced to the Arabs that he came to free them from the Mamlûk yoke and to protect the Islamic world.


Selîm marched first against Aleppo. The city’s governor and people deserted to the Ottomans, and on 24 August 1516 Selîm destroyed Al-Ghawrî’s army at Marj Dâbik. The Mamlûk sultan died on the battlefield. In the great mosque of Aleppo, in the presence of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil, Selîm received the title ‘Servant of Mecca and Medina’.

(The Mamlûk sultans had borne the title ‘Protector of Mecca and Medina’.) The Ottoman army overcame the resistance of the remaining Mamlûk forces and took Damascus and Jerusalem.


In Egypt, Tuman Bay, who had proclaimed himself sultan, refused to submit to the Ottomans. Thereupon, Selîm crossed the Sinai Desert with his army, announcing that he would grant amnesty to the people and peasantry of Egypt and that his campaign was directed only against the Mamlûks.

Tuman Bay, defeated in the battle of Reydaniyya on 22 January 1517, wished to continue the resistance by guerrilla methods but he was captured and executed. Shortly afterwards, on 17 July 1517, the Sherif of Mecca sent Selîm the keys of the Holy Cities and announced his submission. Syria, Egypt and the Hejaz now recognized Ottoman sovereignty, and at the same time Selîm laid claim to parts of the Yemen.

Appointing Hayra Bay, the former Mamlûk governor of Aleppo, as governor of Egypt, Selîm returned to Istanbul.


The addition of the Arab lands, and especially of Mecca and Medina, to the Ottoman Empire, marks the beginning of a new era. Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭৩ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল


The empire was no longer a frontier state but an Islamic caliphate, and the Ottoman sultans now considered themselves protectors not only of the frontiers but of the entire Muslim world. The political advantages of this concept of state became clear in the reign of Selîm’s successor.


One result of the new consciousness of the Ottoman rulers was to raise the religious law of Islam to a position of prime importance in the administration of the state. An equally important result of Selîm’s conquests was that the Ottomans now controlled the world’s richest centres of the transit trade. Ottoman state income doubled, the reserve treasury in the Palace was overflowing, and with these resources Süleymân I (1520–66) was able to support his plans for world-wide conquests.

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Kurulus Osman Episode 73 Bangla Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭৩ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Kurulus Osman Episode 73 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭৩ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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