Monday, June 17, 2024

Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Kurulus Osman Episode 72 Bangla Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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04. THE DEFINITIVE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, 1453–1526

Various pressures forced the new sultan to renounce his father’s policies. Vak fs were restituted and emlâk, which had been converted into timars, reverted to private ownership; but the reaction was not confined to social and political life. A powerful body demanded the restoration of the şerîat in all spheres of life, proclaiming the new sultan as the champion of justice and the şerîat.

It was at this time that Bellini’s frescos were broken up and sold in the bazaar. Some people even claimed that Mehmed had gone too far in his conquests and advised the new sultan to return to the policy of Murâd II.

Gedik Ahmed Pasha, however, wished to continue the attack on the western Christian world and censured the new sultan. Bâyezîd arranged his assassination and dismissed his father-in-law, Ishâk Pasha. Gedik Ahmed’s comrades-in-arms at Otranto had already surrendered on 11 September 1481, some of them even taking service with Italian princes as rcenaries.

To pacify his troops and establish his own authority, Bâyezîd led a campaign against Moldavia, which Mehmed had never completely subjugated. He won a brilliant victory, seizing Akkerman and Kilia in 1484. A long and exhausting campaign against the Mamlûk sultan, ruler of Egypt and Syria, and the most respected sovereign in the Islamic world, followed the victory in Moldavia.

The Mamlûks claimed sovereignty over southern Anatolia, regarding themselves as suzerain not only of the Turcoman principality of Dûlkâdir but also of the Akkoyunlus and aramanids. Rivalry between the Ottomans and the Mamlûks had begun with the Ottoman conquest of Karaman in 1468, and again broke out when the Ottomans tried to extend their influence over the principality of Dûlkâdir. Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Furthermore, the Ottomans maintained that, since Mehmed the Conqueror was the greatest gâzî, they had primacy in the Islamic world and hence a superior claim to these buffer principalities on their frontier. It is possible that Mehmed’s unfinished Anatolian campaign aimed to subdue the Mamlûks.

After his defeat by Bâyezîd in 1481, Cem had fled to Egypt but, in 1482, he entered Anatolia with Mamlûk assistance and civil war broke out again. Bâyezîd defeated him and he took refuge on Rhodes. In 1485 Bâyezîd again opened hostilities against the Mamlûks but with no decisive results.

By 1491 six great campaigns had exhausted both sides and they signed a treaty confirming the prewar situation. This lack of success led Bâyezîd to reform his army and modernize it by increasing the number of firearms.


Bâyezîd’s domestic and foreign policies were cautious and conciliatory a course dictated by the fact that the Knights of Rhodes could, on an order from the Pope, unleash a civil war by releasing Cem, the pretender to the throne. Bâyezîd paid first the knights and then the pope forty-five thousand ducats annually to keep Cem in prison.


After Cem’s death on 25 February 1495, Bâyezîd’s European policy became less cautious and he declared war on Venice. In alliance with Venice, Hungary attacked Serbia, but in the Morea the Ottomans seized the Venetian ports of Lepanto, Modon and Coron. The Venetian war of 1499–1502 indicated that the Ottoman fleet could now challenge Venice on the open seas. During the war the Ottomans constructed two warships of 1,800 tonilato, the largest then known.


The Ottoman Empire began at this time to play a part in European politics. In the Italian wars, any defeated state threatened as a last resort to seek Ottoman aid against their enemy. The Ottomans took the side of Milan and Naples against the Franco-Venetian alliance. Bâyezîd promised to send an army of twenty-five thousand men to assist the Neapolitans but wanted Otranto in return. The Ottoman role in European struggles was to become increasingly important. Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle
Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle

In the years following 1500, Bâyezîd’s mild administration encouraged disaffected elements in Anatolia – the old landowning families, former soldiers who had lost their livelihood and, especially, nomad groups – to rebel against Ottoman authority. Strong Turcoman groups in the central Anatolian steppes, the Taurus mountains and the highlands of Tokat and Sivas were opposed to the centralizing tendency of Ottoman administration.

In an attempt to protect the settled population and maintain its revenues from agriculture, the administration sought to take these tribes under its control, recording them in its cadastral registers and subjecting them to systematic taxation. The Ottoman regime was incompatible with a nomadic economy and tribal customary law.

The tribes adhered fanatically to dervish orders which professed a form of Islam profoundly modified by tribal customs and shamanistic beliefs, while the Ottoman regime upheld the cause of sunnî orthodoxy. The tribes clothed their anti-Ottoman social and political aspirations in the garments of heterodox religious belief, becoming known as k z lbaş – red head – from the red head covering which they wore.

Turcomans such as these had formed the basis of the Akkoyunlu state in eastern Anatolia, and after his defeat of Uzun Hasan in 1473 Mehmed the Conqueror had suppressed them ruthlessly. In about 1500, Ismaîl Safavî, the descendant of a family of sheikhs from Ardabil and a blood-relative of Uzun Hasan, wrested power from the Akkoyunlus in eastern Anatolia, Azerbaijan and Iran. Kurulus Osman 72 Bangla Subtitle | Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle

As the leader of a heterodox religious order, he extended his influence over all the Anatolian Turcomans. His agents preached his cause throughout Anatolia and even in Rumelia. Thousands of Ottoman subjects followed Ismaîl and he became the religious and political leader of all the Turcomans. For the Ottoman government, the K z lbaş movement had become more than a domestic problem.

Like Timur and Uzun Hasan before him, Ismaîl proclaimed that he would make Anatolia part of his Iranian Empire. The Ottomans, thus threatened in the east, sought to end the war with Venice. Ismaîl was later to seek an alliance with Venice, making a special request for artillery. Bâyezîd adopted a conciliatory attitude towards Ismaîl’s challenge, but in 1511, in the last years of his reign when the Ottoman princes were in conflict for the throne,

the K z lbaş in the highlands of western Anatolia rose in revolt around one of Ismaîl’s agents. Burning and destroying everything in their path, they marched on Bursa. It is worth noting that sipâhîs, dispossessed of their former timars, led the revolt.
It was clear that the aged and sick sultan could no longer control the situation. Prince Selîm, who had from the first demanded strong action against Ismaîl, won the support of the Janissaries, and on 24 April 1512 forced his father to abdicate.


The reign of Bâyezîd II was a period of great economic development in conditions of stability and security. Edirne and Bursa continued to develop rapidly, assuming, with their mosques, caravanserais and other great buildings, the character of imperial cities. The contemporary historian Ibn Kemâl declared that Bâyezîd was not a great conqueror like his father but rather that he consolidated the conquests of his father’s reign.

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Kurulus Osman Episode 72 Bangla Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Kurulus Osman Episode 72 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৭২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu

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