Thursday, June 20, 2024

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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The Formation of the Seljuk Empire

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল Tughrıl, Chaghrı and the Internal Struggle for Supremacy After Dandanqan, the Seljuks could hardly believe their luck. Ibn al- Athir recalls how Chaghrı’s men ‘did not dismount for three days, and would not be parted from their horses except when they needed to eat and drink and so on, out of fear of the return of Mas‘ud’s army’.

93 When the scale of their victory became clear, the Seljuks sought to secure control of Khurasan. While Chaghrı set off to seize Balkh,94 Tughrıl entered Nishapur. This time the Seljuks were to stay. For most of the populace, though, there was no sudden transformation. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

The Seljuks had already learned to rely heavily on existing Khurasani officials. Bayhaqi tells us of ‘an aged and eloquent man from Bukhara’ who had served as their ambassador to the Ghaznavids, while we also read of a Seljuk governor (wālī) of Juzjan who was crucified by Sultan Mas‘ud when he retook the town.95 Bayhaqi, relying on Ghaznavid intelligence reports, records how Tughrıl seated himself on Mas‘ud’s throne in Nishapur and asked for guidance from the qadi installed by the previous regime stating that, ‘We are new men and strangers, and we do not know the Persians’ customs.’

96 The first conquest of Nishapur in 428 or 429/1037 or 1038 (depending on whether we accept the date given by the coins or the chronicles) features in several sources as the turning point when Tughrıl started to act as an Islamic ruler rather than merely a nomad chief. Tughrıl, we are told, prevented the Türkmen from sacking the town until the conclusion of the month of The Formation of the Seljuk Empire Tughrıl, Chaghrı and the Internal Struggle for Supremacy After Dandanqan, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

the Seljuks could hardly believe their luck. Ibn al- Athir recalls how Chaghrı’s men ‘did not dismount for three days, and would not be parted from their horses except when they needed to eat and drink and so on, out of fear of the return of Mas‘ud’s army’.93 When the scale of their victory became clear, the Seljuks sought to secure control of Khurasan.
While Chaghrı set off to seize Balkh, Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

94 Tughrıl entered Nishapur. This time the Seljuks were to stay. For most of the populace, though, there was no sudden transformation. The Seljuks had already learned to rely heavily on existing Khurasani officials. Bayhaqi tells us of ‘an aged and eloquent man from Bukhara’ who had served as their ambassador to the Ghaznavids, while we also read of a Seljuk governor (wālī) of Juzjan who was crucified by Sultan Mas‘ud when he retook the town.

95 Bayhaqi, relying on Ghaznavid intelligence reports, records how Tughrıl seated himself on Mas‘ud’s throne in Nishapur and asked for guidance from the qadi installed by the previous regime stating that, ‘We are new men and strangers, and we do not know the Persians’ customs.’ Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

96 The first conquest of Nishapur in 428 or 429/1037 or 1038 (depending on whether we accept the date given by the coins or the chronicles) features in several sources as the turning point when Tughrıl started to act as an Islamic ruler rather than merely a nomad chief. Tughrıl, we are told, prevented the Türkmen from sacking the town until the conclusion of the month of Nishapur seems to have remained in the peculiar situation of being claimed by both Tughrıl and Chaghrı.

102 After Dandanqan, Tughrıl emerges in the sources as the leading member of the family – to such an extent that one historian has accused Chaghrı of being ‘colourless’.103 Chaghrı does virtually disappear from our sources, yet he remained in Merv until his death in 451/1059, successfully repelling Ghaznavid attempts to re- occupy Khurasan, and initiating the Seljuk con- quest of the remote province of Sistan.

104 Musa Yabghu, meanwhile, seems to have held on to Herat until about 446/1054–5 – the date of his last known coin – after which he was ousted by Chaghrı’s son Alp Arslan, but his fate is obscure.105 The fact that we are only adequately informed about Tughrıl reflects the problems of our sources rather than the relative importance of the two brothers. After c. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 06 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

431/1040 – not just the date of Dandanqan, but also the point at which our major source for the early Seljuks, Bayhaqi’s chronicle concludes, as well as the work of his contemporary Gardizi – we are almost entirely reliant on lost Arabic chronicles preserved by Ibn al-A thir and Sibt b. al-J awzi. With their western focus, they naturally concentrate on Tughrıl, who was operating in the region, rather than Chaghrı, who remained in Khurasan, which was of little interest to them. Moreover, the prestige that accrued to Tughrıl through his conquest of Baghdad, the seat of the caliphate, further encouraged chroniclers to concentrate on him at the expense of Chaghrı.


Several fragments of evidence suggest, however, that Tughrıl’s suprem- acy was far from assured. When the partitio imperii was agreed, Chaghrı’s portion would have represented the bulk of the territories actually held by the Seljuks, while Tughrıl won the uncertain reward of as yet uncon- quered territories. In addition, the east – Chaghrı’s portion – has conno- tations of seniority in Turkic culture: with both the Gök Türks and the Qarakhanids, the rulers of the eastern divisions of the empire, consider- ing it to be superior.

106 The numismatic evidence shows that Chaghrı, as well as Tughrıl, used the Turkic symbol of sovereignty, the bow and arrow motif (see further pp. 126–7 below).107 Ibn al-A thir states that since Rajab 428/1037 Chaghrı had appropriated the honour of having himself named as the ‘king of kings’ (malik al- mulūk) in the khu†ba, the Friday sermon, deliv- ered in the mosques of Merv.

108 Chaghrı’s son Qavurt, the ruler of Kirman, mentioned only his father and not Tughrıl on his coins, and called Chaghrı the same title, malik al- mulūk.109 By this the ancient Persian title shāhanshāh is probably meant,110 which was also used by Tughrıl (see p. 137 below).
Thus, the titulature and symbols of rule suggest that Chaghrı saw himself at very least as equal to Tughrıl, if not as his superior.


It is unlikely that Chaghrı – after all, the victor of Dandanqan –would simply have ceded his claim to suzerainty to his brother. Indeed, a local chronicle of the province of Sistan, apparently put together in the eleventh century, suggests enduring tension between Tughrıl and Chaghrı. Each claimed the right to appoint Sistan’s governor (through the issuance of a decree, or manshūr), have coins struck in his own name (sikka), and his name mentioned as ruler in the khu†ba, the sermon at Friday prayers – and each appointed rival governors who fought one another for control of the province between Rajab 446/October 1054 and Jumada II 448/August 1056.

111 This dispute was thus conducted not just by force of arms, but also through the use of symbolism, which was both traditionally Turkic – such as the bow and arrow motifs on the coins – and Islamic: the manshūr, sikka and khu†ba. It is impossible to know how often the sort of proxy war between the two brothers that Sistan saw was repeated elsewhere, given the lack of comparable local sources for this date. Certainly, other members of the Seljuk family very rarely even mentioned Tughrıl’s name on their coins,

112 suggesting that they shared a reluctance to accept his claims to suzerainty. These disputes over leadership and the system of territorial division would persist for most of the empire’s existence.

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2 COMMENTS

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