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Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu 12 With English Subtitles | turkey tv series

Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu 12 With English Subtitles | turkey tv series

Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu 12 With English Subtitles | turkey tv series

Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu 12

Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu 12

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Malikshah and Nizam al- Mulk, 1072–92

Alp Arslan’s murder at the age of forty in Rabi‘ I 465/October 1072 by the banks of the Oxus River, on a campaign to subjugate the Qarakhanids of Transoxiana, was followed by the customary struggle for the succession (detailed on p. 132). Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

However, the army that had accompanied the sultan to the Oxus remained loyal to his young son Malikshah at the urging of the vizier Nizam al-Mulk.198 Hindsight has seen Malikshah’s reign as the apogee of Seljuk rule (see Map 1.2), with the sultan ‘acknowledged in the khu†ba from the borders of China to the extremities of Syria and from the northernmost lands of Islam to Yemen’.

199 Malikshah sent an expedition to assert Seljuk’s authority in Mecca in the Hijaz (which under Alp Arslan had briefly recognized Seljuk suzerainty)200 and Yemen, capturing Aden by the Indian Ocean.

201 The Byzantine empire – at least according to Islamic sources – was reduced to paying tribute to the Seljuks. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

202 Campaigns in Central Asia allowed Malikshah to repel the Qarakhanids from the key frontier city of Tirmidhi on the Oxus which they had captured at the beginning of his reign,

203 and in 482/1089 he was able to seize the Qarakhanid bases of Samarqand and Bukhara, even advancing as far as Kashghar.

204 Subject princes would ‘kiss [Malikshah’s] letters out of awe and honor for him, or so Isfahani, for whom this sultan’s reign was a model compared to which all others fell short, would have us believe. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

205 Contemporary Seljuk propaganda commemorated the sultan’s campaigns in stone: inscriptions and reliefs on the walls at Amid (modern Diyarbakır in southeastern Turkey) dated to 481–2/1088–90 have been interpreted as serving as a ‘victory monument’ (Mashhad al- na‚r) that immortalized to the city’s surrender to Malikshah after a two-year siege (Figures 1.7(a) and (b)).

206 In fact, the most spectacular advances were made by Türkmen groups, whose relationship with the sultan remained ambiguous. On the one hand, some Türkmen attacks seem to have been encouraged by Malikshah; on the other, some Türkmen leaders constituted a major threat to Malikshah’s personal authority. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

We will assess first the Türkmen expansion on the frontiers of the Seljuk Empire; we will then turn to deal with the internal situation, specifically the vizier Nizam al-Mulk and his relations with Malikshah on the one hand, and the Türkmen on the other. The activities of two Türkmen chiefs, Artuq and Atsız, suggest the complexities of the Türkmen’s role in Malikshah’s empire. Artuq had plundered Basra and the date-filled oases of al-Ahsa’ on the east coast of Arabia in 469/1086. Despite the wanton attack on Basra, Artuq seems to have continued to be regarded with favor by Malikshah, and he was later allotted territories in the Jibal. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

207 – rather more suitable, ecologically, for a Türkmen. Indeed, as during his campaign into al- Ahsa’, Artuq had attacked the local Qarmatians, an Ismaili Shi‘ite group, he was personally thanked by the caliph. Later we find Artuq assisting sultanic forces in operations in Syria,

208 although later he rebelled, using Türkmen support to carve out a base for himself there.

209 Under Artuq’s descendants, his territories in the Jazira became an independent polity, the Artuqid state, that drew on Great Seljuk practice and precedent.

210 The career of the Khwarazmian Türkmen Atsız b. Awaq was likewise characterized by both tension and cooperation with the Seljuk sultan. Atsız ruled what Turkish scholars have described as a Nawakiyya principality (beylik) in Syria. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

211 Initially, Atsız seems to have operated with the consent of the sultan, gradually pushing Fatimid forces out of most of the coast and Jerusalem in 463/1070 onwards, and finally capturing Damascus in 468/1075. Indeed, Atsız’s Türkmen forces were supplemented by 3,000 slave soldiers sent by Malikshah.

212 However, Atsız overreached himself with a dis- astrous campaign against Egypt in 469/1076–7. Initially, he met with some success, plundering the Nile Delta for two months while the main Fatimid army was campaigning in Upper Egypt.

A Jewish witness resident in Cairo, Solomon Ben-Joseph Ha-Cohen, recorded with horror Atsız’s pillaging and desecration, both in Egypt and previously in Jerusalem: They entered Fustat [Cairo], robbed and murdered And ravished and pillaged the storehouses They were a strange and cruel people Girt with garments of many colors, armed and officered And capped with helmets, black and red They trumpet-like elephants and roar like the roaring ocean . . . Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click


They laid waste the cities and they were made desolate. God remembered what they had done to the people of Jerusalem, That they besieged them twice in two years, And burned the heaped corn and destroyed the palaces, And cut down the trees and trampled upon the vineyards, Despoiled the graves and threw out the bones. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Click

213 The Fatimid general Badr al-J Amali marched north, inflicting a crushing defeat on the Türkmen army at Cairo on 22 Rajab 469/19 February 1077, from which only Atsız and a few of his men escaped alive. The defeat at Cairo also marked the end of the Nawakiyya polity in Syria. Series Best To Watch Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu

Malikshah had evidently been minded to annex Syria anyway, for as early as 468/1075–6 he had tried to appoint his brother Tutush there. Atsız had successfully appealed against the decision on the grounds that: ‘I am the obedient slave and the sultan’s deputy in these lands; I take from them nothing but what I spend on my sustenance and that of the soldiers with me, and I send to the treasury 30,000 dinars every year.’

214 In other words, Atsız expected to be left alone if he sent a suitable amount of tribute to the sultanic treasury. Despite the appointment of Tutush in the wake of the Cairo debacle, it was not until 482/1089–90 that Syria and the Jazira came firmly under the control of either Malikshah’s relatives, or governors appointed by him.

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3 COMMENTS

  1. […] Factions of amirs and bureaucrats intrigued incessantly, while the Caliphs of Baghdad started to play an increasingly important role in Seljuk politics, as well as asserting their authority over most of central and southern Iraq. Although under Sanjar Seljuk rule in Khurasan appears more robust than the politically troubled western sultanate, it was the latter that sur- lived for nearly another half-century after the collapse of the 1150s. [Watch Now] […]

  2. […] 52 and, more concretely, ordered Mawdud, the amir of Mosul, to campaign against Crusader-h eld Edessa in 503/1110. Although Mawdud’s armies ravaged northern Syria for the next three years, these measures did not stem the criticism from Syria. In 504/1111, Ibn al- Athir reports that a Byzantine emissary also came to Baghdad to encourage the Seljuks to make war on the Crusaders, prompting the people of Aleppo to complain to the sultan: Do you not fear God, given that the Byzantine king is a better protector of Islam than you are, so that he has sent to you to wage jihad against them? Go to Watch […]

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