Tuesday, June 18, 2024

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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Tughrıl’s Conquest of Iran, 1038–55

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল Tughrıl’s great achievement was the conquest of the Iranian plateau and Iraq, which was crowned by his entrance into Baghdad in 447/1055 and subsequent coronation as sultan (pp. 48–50, 164–5 below).

These territo- ries were ruled by various princes of the ethnically Iranian Buyid dynasty, although in peripheral areas like the Caspian (where the Buyids themselves had originated, in the province of Daylam), Azerbaijan and the Caucasus other ruling houses – Iranian, Kurdish and Arab – preserved their inde- pendence.

113 The Buyid state was divided into several large appanages, of which Shiraz and Baghdad were the most important, each held by a differ- ent member of the family. Competition between rival Buyid princes for these appanages rendered the political system inherently unstable. Much of western Iran was dominated by another Iranian family of Caspian Daylamite origin, the Kakuyids, based in Isfahan, who alternately recog- nised Buyid and Ghaznavid suzerainty.

114 For the first decade after Dandanqan, the northern Jibal – basically the Hamadhan to Rayy axis – formed the core of the Seljuk territories to the west of Khurasan. Although Tughrıl’s troops intervened in Fars at the request of the warring local Buyids, that province was not occupied.115 The only other part of the Iranian plateau to experience direct Seljuk rule at this point was Kirman, where Chaghrı’s son Qavurt had established himself as ruler during the period around 1048–51. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৬৭বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

116 The 1050s saw a rapid expansion of Tughrıl’s t erritories, with wide- ranging campaigns designed to bring local rulers much more closely to heel. The questionable loyalty of Abu Mansur b. ‘Ala’ al- Dawla, the Kakuyid ruler of Isfahan, encouraged Tughrıl to depose him. Tughrıl finally entered Isfahan in Muharram 443/May–June 1051 after a year-l ong siege.

117 A major expedition in 446/1054–5 brought the submission of Vahsudan of Tabriz, Abu ’l-A swar of Ganja, Nasr al- Dawla of Diyar Bakr and the Arab Quraysh b.
Badran from the ‘Uqaylid Bedouin dynasty of Mosul.

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

118 The Iranian plateau fell to Tughrıl less by violent conquest than by nego- tiation, with local Iranian and Kurdish princes usually left in place provided that they acknowledged Tughrıl’s sovereignty and, most importantly, paid him off. ‘Tughrıl sent to the king of the Daylamites inviting him to obe- dience [i.e., to acknowledge Tughrıl’s sovereignty] and demanding money from him’ as Ibn al- Athir succinctly expresses one example of this behav- iour. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

119 Even Tughrıl’s siege of a major prize such as Isfahan (438/1046–7), subsequently to become the Seljuk capital, was bought off.120 Intervention often seems to have been purely opportunistic: when Tughrıl invaded the Caspian provinces of Jurjan and Tabaristan in 433/1041–2, this was simply an attempt to take advantage of the squabbling among the local Ziyarid dynasty, who, characteristically, were left in place subject to a cash payment.

121 This is not to say that the Turkish takeover was entirely peaceful. The ‘Iraqiyya, notorious for the destruction they left behind, and rejecting Tughrıl’s authority,122 had been operating on the Iranian plateau since at least c. 420/1029.123 Rayy, Tughrıl’s main base, was in fact first occupied by a group of ‘Iraqiyya led by one Qızıl. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

124 Similarly, Hamadhan in the Jibal, a region noted for its rich pastureland and so ideal for sustaining a nomadic host, had been occupied by the ‘Iraqiyya in 430/1038–9, several years before Tughrıl’s cousin Ibrahim Yınal seized the area in 433/1041–2.125 Tughrıl is reported to have responded to the Buyid ruler Jalal al- Dawla’s complaints: Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

These Türkmen (al- Turkmān) were our slaves, servants, subjects and fol- lowers. They were obedient and served our court, and when we arose to arrange the affairs of the Ghaznavid house and we were charged with deal- ing with Khwarazm, they headed off to Rayy where they created havoc and destruction. We mustered our armies from Khurasan against them, determined that they should seek mercy and take refuge in forgiveness.
Pride took possession of them and decency deserted them, and we must return them humble to our banners and give them a taste of our harshness as a reward for rebels.

126 In addition to the challenge from the ‘Iraqiyya, the loyalties of Tughrıl’s cousin Ibrahim Yınal were often in doubt. Tughrıl was afraid that Ibrahim ‘would make himself master of Persia, and cause the armies of the Turcoman Ghuzzaye [i.e., the Ghuzz] to rebel with him’,127 and Ibrahim’s three major revolts indicate this was no vain worry.128 However, the relationship was much more complex than simply a challenge from an ambitious relative. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল


Sometimes Ibrahim Yınal appears in the sources as Tughrıl’s chief aid and assistant; likewise, not all ‘Iraqiyya were hostile to Tughrıl. Some of their leaders were linked by marriage ties to Tughrıl, and continued to reside in Rayy after Tughrıl’s entry to the city.129 Indeed, the ‘Iraqiyya were also employed as mercenaries by local Iranian rulers such as the Kakuyids of Isfahan and Vahsudan, the lord of Tabriz. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

130 Tughrıl’s own armies remained overwhelmingly Türkmen-b ased, and this too had consequences for the nature of early Seljuk rule. Not just his men, but also their dependants and their livestock needed to be fed. A single Türkmen family may have owned around 100 sheep for subsidence, meaning that a 3,000- strong army – the size of the force with which Tughrıl entered Nishapur in 429/1038131 – would have been accompanied by 300,000 sheep, to say nothing of other, larger livestock. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

132 These numbers put immense pressure on the countryside, exacerbating the famines from which Khurasan was suffering in this period. As the Syriac Christian chronicler Bar Hebraeus (d. 1286), Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

who drew on the Maliknama tradition, puts it: In every place where his troops meet together they plunder, and destroy and kill. And no one district (or, quarter) is able to support them for more than one week because of their vast number. And from sheer necessity they are compelled to depart to another quarter in order to find food for themselves and their beasts. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 07 English Subtitle Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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