Sunday, April 7, 2024

Kurulus Osman Episode 71

Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

Kurulus Osman Season 3 Episode 71 Bangla Subtitle

In two campaigns in 1458 and 1460, the Conqueror annexed the despotate of the Morea, where the Venetians and the Ottomans now confronted each other directly. In the mountains of northern Albania, Iskender Beg and the lords who had joined him, with aid from Venice, the Pope and the King of Aragon, successfully resisted the Ottomans.

Taking advantage of the situation, the Venetians occupied Scutari (Shkodër) and Durazzo (Durrës); but the Venetians, supreme on the sea, and the Ottomans, supreme on the land, avoided any decisive engagement. The siege of Salonica from 1423 to 1430 had already shown how such an encounter could prolong itself indefinitely.

Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

But when the Ottomans took Argos with the aid of the city’s Greek bishop, this intermittent struggle became a full-scale war, lasting from 1463 to 1479. The Hungarians reacted to Mehmed’s invasion of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1463 by entering Bosnia and occupying its capital while simultaneously signing a treaty with Venice.

The pope urged other Christian rulers to join the alliance. Iskender Beg cooperated with Venice in Albania, while the Venetians sought allies in the east. In the autumn of 1463, they opened negotiations with the Akkoyunlu ruler, Uzun Hasan, the Ottoman’s greatest rival in eastern Anatolia.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

When a struggle for the throne of Karaman broke out in 1464, Uzun Hasan intervened in central Anatolia affairs. Although Mehmed occupied Karaman in 1468, he could not subjugate several Turcoman tribes living in the mountains extending to the Mediterranean coast. Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

These tribes were not subdued for the next fifty years and occasionally rose in revolt around pretenders to the throne of Karaman. After the Ottoman occupation of Karaman, Uzun Hasan adopted a more aggressive policy; by 1471, the problem of Karaman had become a serious threat to Ottoman power. Uzun Hasan, now ruler of Iran and eastern Anatolia, had become as terrible an enemy as Timur.

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

He had an alliance with the Venetians and, establishing contact with the Knights of Rhodes, the King of Cyprus and the Bey of Alanya, he promised to send them thirty thousand troops. He also intended to establish direct contact with Venice by marching on the Mediterranean coast through the Taurus mountains, then controlled by the Turcoman tribes. Although a few Venetian ships landed a force on this coast, equipped with the firearms Uzun Hasan lacked, they could not find Uzun Hasan’s men.

While a crusader fleet attacked the Ottoman coasts in 1472, Uzun Hasan’s army, with Karamanid reinforcements, drove the Ottomans from Karaman and marched on Bursa.
Under the terms of the treaty between Uzun Hasan and Venice, Uzun Hasan was to acquire all of Anatolia on the condition that he did not construct fortresses on the coastline or close the seas to Venetian ships. Venice could regain the Morea, Lesbos, Euboea and Argos; it was even projected that Venice should occupy Istanbul.

Kayifamilytv Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

Mehmed was equal to the situation. He repulsed the invasion of Uzun Hasan and the Karamanids and took extraordinary measures against Uzun Hasan, collecting a force of seventy thousand men. He levied, in addition to the regular army, extra paid troops from his Muslim and Christian subjects and took two men from each Christian village in the Balkans. He met Uzun Hasan on the Euphrates and crushingly defeated him at the Battle of Başkent on 11 August 1473.

Venetian hopes were shattered, and Mehmed turned the offensive directly against Venice, laying siege to Scutari in Albania in 1474. In 1478 Mehmed came to direct the siege in person; Venice’s lines of communication by sea were cut, and the aid promised from Hungary never materialized. According to the terms of the peace treaty of 25 January 1479, Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

Kayifamily tv Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

Venice surrendered Scutari, ceded the places she had lost during the war – Maina in the Morea and the islands of Limni and Euboea – restored the places she had occupied, and agreed to pay an annual indemnity of ten thousand ducats. The sultan granted the Venetians freedom of trade and permitted a Venetian ambassador to reside in Istanbul.
Mehmed emerged from these wars victorious. His empire in Rumelia and Anatolia was now larger than Bâyezîd’s.

In Anatolia, he had annexed Karaman and, in 1461, the Candarid principality in Kastamonu, extending the empire’s borders to the Euphrates. In the Balkans, he had established the Danube from Belgrade to the Black Sea as the northern limit of the empire; but Venice still occupied important points on the Morea, Albania, and the Aegean coasts. The Hungarians still occupied Belgrade and northern Bosnia;

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

in the Aegean, the Knights of Rhodes, and on the Black Sea and the lower Danube, Stephen the Great of Moldavia, supported by Poland, still threatened Ottoman supremacy.
Having consolidated his empire in Anatolia and Rumelia, Mehmed the Conqueror turned his attention elsewhere. The Knights of Rhodes prevented his access to the Mediterranean and formed, under papal command, a permanent vanguard for a crusader attack. Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

In 1480 Mehmed sent an army against Rhodes under the command of the Vizier Mesîh Pasha; at the same time, Gedik Ahmed Pasha sailed against southern Italy from Avlonya (Vlorë) on the Albanian coast. Mesîh retreated, but Gedik Ahmed took Otranto on 11 August 1480, establishing an Ottoman bridgehead there.

Osman online Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

He returned to Rumelia to collect a large army for the invasion of Italy. Preparing to flee from Rome to France, the Pope summoned all the Western Christian states to his aid. In the following spring, Mehmed crossed to Anatolia at the head of a large army but died at the second camp site.

Mehmed the Conqueror was the true founder of the Ottoman Empire. He established an empire in Europe and Asia, with its capital at Istanbul, which was to remain the nucleus of the Ottoman Empire for four centuries. He used the title ‘Sovereign of the Two Lands’ – Rumelia and Anatolia – ‘and of the Two Seas’ – the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. He was a warrior who strove for world dominion but who was, at the same time, a man of tolerance and culture.

Osmanonline Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

He ordered Gennadius, whom he had appointed as Orthodox patriarch, to compose a treatise summarizing the principles of the Christian religion. Members of the ulema came to his Palace on certain days of the week to give him instructions. He received humanists and Greek scholars at his court; he invited Gentile Bellini from Venice to paint frescos for the Palace and his portrait. Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

But those who rank Mehmed among contemporary Renaissance sovereigns exaggerate. He was, above all, an Islamic gâzî sovereign whose rule aimed to transform his state into the world’s most powerful empire.4 A terrible Janissary revolt, a struggle for the throne between his sons Cem and Bâyezîd, and a general reaction against his administrative policies followed Mehmed II’s death in 1481.

Osman online Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

His excessively bellicose policy had exhausted the country. He had been a harsh ruler with unlimited authority, but the Janissary army, weary of campaigns which continued even in winter, had grown mutinous. To finance his great undertakings, he had increased customs duties and some of the taxes paid by peasant farmers; he had repeatedly debased the silver coinage and tightened financial controls.

Finally, he brought some twenty thousand villages and farms, previously held as vak f or emlâk, under state control and distributed them as timars. This measure caused widespread discontent, especially among old and influential families, the ulema and the şeyhs and dervishes.

Turk Tv Series Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

The disaffected began a propaganda campaign and rallied around Mehmed’s eldest son, Bâyezîd. On Mehmed’s death, they instigated a Janissary revolt. The Conqueror’s grand vizier was assassinated, and measures were taken to bring Bâyezîd to the throne. Bâyezîd’s partisans could count on the support of Gedik Ahmed, the idol of the Janissaries;

during preparations for his Italian campaign, they called this great warrior to Bâyezîd’s side. Gedik Ahmed defeated Cem and brought Bâyezîd to the throne, but the effective power remained in the hands of Gedik Ahmed and his father-in-law, Ishâk Pasha.

Turk Tv Series Kurulus Osman Episode 71 English Subtitle

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