Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
02. FROM FRONTIER PRINCIPALITY TO EMPIRE 1354–1402
Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল During the early period no major state opposed the Ottomans either in the Balkans or in Anatolia, nor did they meet any European crusader army, even though the pope had proclaimed a crusade against the Ottomans in his Bull of 25 December 1366. A large crusader fleet or army could effectively have checked Ottoman advances.
Their strongest rival at this time was the kingdom of Hungary which sought to use the Ottoman advance in the Balkans to expand Hungarian rule in the lower Danube basin. The main Ottoman weakness was lack of naval power. Christian states controlled the Dardanelles, the crossing point between Rumelia and Anatolia.
Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল In 1366 Amadeo VI of Savoy captured Gallipoli and in the following year returned it to the Byzantines, leaving the Ottomans in a dangerous situation. Ottoman forces in Rumelia were cut off from Anatolia until, in October 1376, Adronicus IV agreed to return the fortress of Gallipoli to Murâd I who had secured for him the Byzantine throne.
Ottoman expansion in the Balkans was aided as much by social as by political conditions.3 Recent research has shown that the decline of central power in the Byzantine Empire and its Balkan successor states was simultaneous with the rise of feudalism. Monasteries and influential persons in the provinces were gaining possession of pronoia lands previously under state control, whose tax revenues had been distributed among the army.
By obtaining financial and legal concessions from the state, they converted these lands into holdings with life tenure and they were able to increase the taxes and feudal dues extracted from the peasantry.4 In the regions under direct Ottoman administration, these lands again came under state control and were either converted into timars or distributed, in return for military service, to the yayas, Turkish farmers serving with the army.
All local imposts not prescribed in the simple tax regulations of the kânûn-i osmânî – the Ottoman code – were abolished. Only the decree of the sultan could establish any income or privilege. Everything had first to be fixed by regulation whose execution was entrusted to a kâdî, acting independently of the local authority. The Ottoman regime thus established a centralized administration in place of feudal decentralization, and general regulations in place of the taxes and privileges that had been at the discretion of feudal overlords.
5 For the peasantry, the new regime must have been an improvement on the old. To understand the superiority of the Ottoman to the local Balkan administrations one has only to compare Ottoman laws with the code of the Serbian monarch, Stephan Dušan. For example, Dušan’s code required the peasant to work for his lord two days a week; Ottoman regulations required the reâyâ to work only three days a year on the sipâhî’s land.
rotection of the peasantry against the exploitation of local authorities was a basic principle of Ottoman administration. At the same time, the Ottomans officially recognized the Orthodox Church, suppressing, in principle, the Catholic Church throughout their realms. All these factors are important in explaining the ease and speed of Ottoman expansion in the Balkans, and why the peasantry did not join their overlords in resisting the Ottomans.
The Ottomans did not, however, regard themselves as representatives of any specific social creed. They knew that by pursuing a conciliatory policy towards Christians they could more easily extend their realms and increase their sources of revenue. It was also part of their expansionist doctrine to treat with tolerance the indigenous nobility and military class.
With the exception of those who openly opposed them, the Ottomans took members of the military class into their own service, and thus, in Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia and Thessaly, they retained the services of thousands of native troops, known by the Slavic name, voynik. They enjoyed the usufruct of a fixed portion of state land, were exempt from taxation, and served as combatants in the Ottoman army.
The Vlachs, Christian nomads of Serbia, were exempt from certain taxes in return for service as frontier guards and raiders. The Ottomans distributed timars to former pronoia holders who, as cavalrymen, were of a higher social class, but at the same time divested them of their feudal privileges. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Many of the soldiers levied from vassal states served in the Ottoman army under the command of their own princes or overlords, without having accepted Islam. Islam, in time, gained more and more converts, but at the end of the fifteenth century there were still timar holders whose families had remained Christian through three or four generations.
The Ottomanization of a conquered region was not a sudden and radical transformation but a gradual development.6 When, in the mid-fourteenth century, the Ottomans began their career of conquest in the Balkans, they had already established a strong state in Anatolia, stretching from Ankara to the Dardanelles. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
With the disintegration of Stephan Dušan’s Serbian Empire and the kingdom of Bulgaria, no Balkan state could compare with the Ottoman state in size and strength. Ottoman advances in Europe were always paralleled by an expansion of their territory in Asia, an advance on one front following an advance on the other. Throughout their history the Ottomans were careful to avoid having to fight simultaneously on both fronts.
During the early period, when they did not control the Dardanelles, this was a matter of life or death. In the second half of the fourteenth century two powerful states rivalled the Ottomans in Anatolia: the principality of Eretna, with its capital Sivas, the former seat of the Mongol governors, and the principality of Karaman which by then included Konya, the old Seljuk capital.
In 1354 the Ottomans took Ankara from Eretna but still faced an alliance between Eretna and Karaman. In 1362 Ankara was lost and again retaken. During the reign of Murâd I (1362–89), a career in the expanding Ottoman state was an alluring prospect to the gâzîs and settlers from Anatolia. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Contemporary near-eastern sources describe the sultan as the lord of all the frontier principalities, and for this reason the Ottomans had no great difficulty in annexing important parts of the principality of Germiyan, with its capital at Kütahya, and Hamidili, further to the south. They always tried, however, to legitimize these acts of aggression, maintaining that they had accepted territory from Germiyan as part of Prince Bâyezîd’s dowry and that they had purchased the lands in Hamidili.
The annexation of Hamidili seriously threatened the capital of Karaman. When Karamanid forces marched against them, the Ottomans proclaimed that this was an act of treason against the Holy War which they were waging, claiming that this offensive assisted the enemies of the Faith and that, therefore, according to the şerîat, it was a pious duty to remove the Karamanids. The Ottomans frequently used this policy when attacking their Muslim neighbours in the east.
They were later to repeat the same charge against the Mamlûks of Egypt, Uzun Hasan and the Safavids of Iran, broadcasting it through fetuâs to the entire Islamic world. In 1387, Murâd met the Karamanid attack with the forces which his Christian vassals in the Balkans – the Byzantine emperor, the Serbian despot and the other Serbian princes – had ontributed and decisively defeated his Muslim rival, whose army was composed mainly of tribal elements.
After this victory, the independent rulers in Anatolia – the Karamanids, the Candarids in Kastamonu, and a branch of the Hamid dynasty in Antalya – recognized the Ottoman sultan as their suzerain. Only Kâdî Burhâneddîn, who had replaced the dynasty of Eretna at Sivas, challenged the Ottoman ruler and prevented Ottoman expansion towards Amasya, an important city on the silk-route. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
While Anatolian affairs occupied Murâd, Serbia, Bulgaria and Bosnia united against him in the Balkans, and an Ottoman army was defeated at Ploshnik by the Bosnians in 1388; but a lightning campaign in the same year brought Danubian Bulgaria to submission. Next spring Murâd crossed over into Europe with the auxiliary forces contributed by the vassal princes, and on 15 June 1389 defeated the combined Serbian and Bosnian armies in a hard- fought battle on the Plain of Kossovo.
This victory firmly established Ottoman rule in the Balkans. Thus by 1389 the Ottomans had founded an empire of vassal principalities in the Balkans and Anatolia. It should, however, be added that these were to use every opportunity to rebel against Ottoman rule, eventually forcing the Ottomans to remove the dynasties and convert each principality into a directly administered province.
When the word spread that a Serb had assassinated Murâd at the Battle of Kossovo, the dynastic rulers in Anatolia rose in revolt. Between 1389 and 1392 the new sultan, Bâyezîd I (1389–1402), annexed most of the Anatolian principalities, appointing to their dministration slaves brought up in his own Palace. While Bâyezîd was occupied in Anatolia, Ottoman influence in the Balkans declined.
The ambitions of Hungary and Wallachia in Danubian Bulgaria and the Dobrudja put the truncated kingdom of Bulgaria in a difficult situation. Mirčea, the Hungarian-protected Prince of Wallachia, had occupied the Dobrudja, and Silistra on the right bank of the lower Danube, while the Hungarians sought to establish themselves in Vidin. Ottoman protection, however, was no way of escape from these dangers.
The Ottoman ruler came to the Balkans and in 1393 brought Danubian Bulgaria under direct Ottoman rule, installed the Bulgarian king as a vassal prince in Nicopolis, and expelled Mirčea from Silistra and the Dobrudja. Although in the same difficult position of acting as a buffer state between the Hungarians and the Ottomans, the despotate of Serbia did not suffer the same fate.
The despot rendered his homage to the sultan. At the same time, the death of Murâd I had encouraged the Palaeologi in Byzantium and the Morea. By promising the union of the two churches they sought to persuade the pope to organize a crusade. In the Morea, Venetian influence had reached its height. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Faced with this situation, Bâyezîd summoned all the vassal princes in the Balkans, including the Palaeologi, to Verria in 1394, to reaffirm their ties of vassalage. On the flight of the Palaeologi, he blockaded Constantinople, occupied Thessaly, and sent raiders into the Morea. Another Ottoman army brought Albania under direct Ottoman rule, expelling the local lords. In 1395 Bâyezîd undertook a campaign as far as Slankamen on the Danube and then, entering Wallachia, defeated Mirčea at Argesh.
Advancing to Nicopolis, Bâyezîd arrested and executed King Shishman of Bulgaria, accusing him of having collaborated with the enemy. By removing the local dynasties he went some way towards creating an empire with a centralized government in place of one composed of vassal states. By eliminating the kingdom of Bulgaria the Ottoman state assumed direct responsibility for the defence of the Danube region against Hungary, no longer leaving it to a weak buffer kingdom.
Wallachia, too, was reduced to vassal status. The crusade of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the climax of the struggle between the Ottomans and the Hungarians for control of the lower Danube. Venice, too, was concerned in the struggle for the Balkans. In this war, she sought to use her fleet to cut communications between Anatolia and the Balkans at the Dardanelles; for the western knights the campaign was simply a crusading adventure, where the crusader army was utterly defeated.
The victory at Nicopolis not only confirmed Ottoman control of the Balkans but greatly raised Ottoman prestige in the Islamic world. Bâyezîd, at the height of his glory, returned to Anatolia in 1398 and annexed Karaman and the principality of Kâdî Burhâneddîn, creating a centralized empire stretching from the Danube to the Euphrates. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
In an attempt to capture Constantinople, which would have been the natural centre for this empire, he intensified his blockade of the city. At the same time, in central Aisa and Iran, Timur (1336–1405) had founded a powerful empire and proclaimed himself heir to the sovereign rights of the Ilkhanids over Anatolia. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
The Ottoman sultan challenged Timur, but at the Battle of Ankara on 28 July 1402 was routed and taken prisoner. During the battle, the local Anatolian cavalrymen went over to the side of their former lords who had taken refuge in Timur’s court. Under Timur’s protection, these former sovereigns everywhere re-established their old, independent principalities. Bâyezîd’s attempt at empire ended in failure.
The remaining Ottoman territory was divided among Bâyezîd’s sons who accepted Timur’s sovereignty. On Timur’s death they began an intensive struggle for control of the whole territory. Kurulus Osman Episode 67 English Subtitle | কুরুলুস উসমান ভলিউম ৬৭ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Bangla Subtitle HD 1080