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Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | |আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | |আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | |আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

The Rise of the Seljuks: From the Eurasian Steppe to the Gates of Cairo, c. 965–1092

Contemporaries struggled to understand the Seljuk conquests. The Armenian historian Aristakes Lastiverttsi, writing in the 1070s of events some thirty years earlier, could comprehend their speed and savagery only as a sign of divine anger with his native land: [T]he gate of Heaven’s wrath opened upon our land.

Numerous troops moved forth from T‘urk‘astan [Turkestan], their horses were as fleet as eagles, with hooves as solid as rock. Well girded, their bows were taut, their arrows sharp, and the laces of their shoes were never untied . . . They sped like lions, and like lion cubs, they mercilessly threw the corpses of many people to the carnivorous beasts and birds . . . [God] poured His wrath down upon us by means of a foreign people, for we had sinned against Him. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

1 For the settled Muslim population, the Turks were scarcely less alien or alarming. Contemporary intelligence reports from Khurasan quoted by the Ghaznavid historian Bayhaqi complain that the Seljuks and their nomadic followers, the Türkmen, ‘damage every place and people; they steal every- thing they find, and much evil comes from them’.2 However, another Armenian chronicler, Matthew of Edessa (d. c. 1136) gives a very different impression of Seljuk campaigns under the third Seljuk sultan Malikshah in the 1070s:

Malikshah . . . marched forth at the head of a formidable army composed of innumerable warriors. He came and entered the Roman empire in the West [i.e., Byzantium] in order to take over that region. This sultan’s heart was filled with benevolence, gentleness, and compassion for the Christians; he 1 Aristakes Lastiverttsi, History, trans.

Robert Bedrosian (New York, 1985) 64–5, 66 (= Armenian text edited by Yuzbashian, 63–4) (available at www.rbedrosian.com). By ‘the laces of their shoes were never untied’ Aristakes means they were constantly on the move. 2 Bayhaqi, Tarikh, 720. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series


the rise of the seljuks | 21 showed fatherly affection for all the inhabitants of the lands [he traversed] and so gained control of many towns and regions without resistance.3 This perceived transformation of the Seljuks from a barbarous force of war- riors into architects of a civilised empire is often associated with Malikshah’s great vizier, Nizam al-M ulk (d. 485/1092).

As one contemporary put it, ‘he was the one who built the Seljuk state’,4 by introducing the norms of Perso- Islamic governance. A different source, however, remarks of Tughrıl (d. 455/1063), that he was ‘the first of the Seljuk kings and the one who built their state’.

5 Both characterisations have a measure of truth. It is perhaps not surprising that contemporaries were confused. The sudden collapse of the existing empires in western Asia in the mid- to late eleventh century – the Ghaznavids. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Buyids and Byzantines – before the Seljuks is not easily explained today, and the apparent suddenness of the transformation from war band to empire is as bewildering as the scale and rapidity of the conquests.
By the middle of the eleventh century, Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

something resembling a Seljuk state had emerged – a polity that struck coins, had some sort of a bureaucracy, and raised taxes, to use a fairly minimal definition. However, pace Matthew of Edessa, even under Malikshah it was still often the Türkmen rather than the sultans who spearheaded expansion, launching campaigns that reached far into Anatolia, Egypt, Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

Arabia and the Caucasus. Yet alongside this process of empire- building, tension was growing between some groups of nomads and the Seljuk sultans. The latter’s leadership was by no means accepted, even (or especially) by other members of the Seljuk family, who were often able to mobilise Türkmen support for their own claims.

For the Seljuk sultans, these Türkmen- backed rebels represented a much more serious threat to their authority than any external threat. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

Understanding the empire’s forma- tion is thus not merely a question of tracing the emergence of state institu- tions, but also of examining the fate of the force which had created the empire, the nomadic Turks themselves, whose political concepts remained rooted in the world of the steppe where not merely descent, but also personal charisma was required to establish a claim to leadership.

6 We therefore must start with the steppe background from which these Turks emerged. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series


3 Matthew of Edessa, Armenia and the Crusades, Tenth to Twelfth Centuries: The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, trans. Ara Dostourian (Lanham, MD, 1993), 154. 4 Ibn al- ‘Adim, Bughyat al- Talab fi Ta’rikh Halab: al- tarajim al- khassa bi- ta’rikh al- Salajiqa, ed. Ali Sevim as Bu∫yat at-˝ alab fî Tārīḫ Óalab: Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Selçuklularla İlgili Haltercümeleri (Ankara, 1976), 90; Bosworth, ‘Towards a Biography of Nizam al-M ulk’, 303. 5 Sibt, Mir’at, 107. 6 See Peacock, Early Seljūq History, 60–3. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

The Oghuz and the Emergence of the Seljuks In the sacred heart of the pre- Islamic Turkish world in Mongolia, an eighth- century inscription in Turkish runes provides our earliest references to the Oghuz (the Turkish form of Arabic and Persian ‘Ghuzz’).7 Bilge Qaghan, ruler of the Gök Türk Empire (552–774), which stretched from Manchuria to the Black Sea steppes, erected this monument to the memory of his younger brother Kül Tigin in 732.

The inscription surveys the history of the Gök Türk Empire, which Bilge Qaghan and Kül Tigin had rescued from destruction at the hands of various enemies, both the Chinese and various Turkish groups, of whom the Oghuz are one.8 Yet Bilge Qaghan also refers to the Oghuz as ‘my own people’, and they are one of the main groups to whom the inscription is addressed. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

These Oghuz played a prominent role in the fighting between various nomadic groups that accompanied the demise of the Gök Türks in the mid- eighth century. After this we know very little about the Oghuz until they appear in Islamic sources of the ninth and tenth centuries in the west of the Eurasian steppe, around the Volga River.Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series


Writing at the court of Malikshah in the late eleventh century, the physician Sharaf al- Zaman Marwazi attempted to explain the origins of the dynasty’s ancestors. He traced the Oghuz migrations westwards back to the struggles for pasture among nomadic groups in Central Asia displaced by the new power of Liao, a nomadic dynasty from Manchuria, better known in Islamic history as the Qarakhitay, Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

9 who were to play a crucial role in the destruction of the Great Seljuk Empire in the mid- twelfth century (pp. 103–6 below). The rise of the Liao/Qarakhitay did, indeed, have profound conse- quences for the steppe, but it is unlikely that they were behind the Oghuz
7 For the early Oghuz and the background of the steppe world from the sixth century more generally, see: Peter B. Golden, ‘The Migrations of the Oğuz’, Archivum Ottomanicum,

4 (1972), 45–84 (reprinted in Peter B. Golden, Nomads and their Neighbours in the Russian Steppe: Turks Khazars and Qipchaqs (Aldershot, 2003) (study V); Peter B. Golden, ‘The Turks: Origins and Expansion’, in Peter B. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Golden, Turks and Khazars: Origins Institutions and Interactions in Pre- Mongol Eurasia (Farnham 2010), (study I); C. Edmund Bosworth, ‘The Origins of the Seljuqs’, in C. Lange and S. Mecit (eds), The Seljuqs: Politics, Society and Culture (Edinburgh, 2011). On the Gök Türk empire, see Denis Sinor, Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

‘The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire’, in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia (Cambridge, 1990), 285–316; Ahmet Taşagıl, Gök Türkler I –II–III (Ankara, 2012). For the Orkhon inscriptions, see Talat Tekin, Orhon Yazıtları (Ankara, 1988). Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল8 There are also references to the ‘Toquz Oghuz’ (Nine Oghuz [tribes]). It is not clear whether these are a distinct group from the Oghuz. See Golden, ‘The Migrations of the Oghuz’, 48. 9 Sharaf al- Zaman Tahir Marvazi on China, the Turks and India, ed. and trans. Vladimir Minorsky (London, 1942), 29–30. Watch Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 With English Subtitles Free | turkey tv series

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

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3 COMMENTS

  1. […] It would, however, be up to Malikshah’s successors to deal with the Crusaders. As far as Malikshah was concerned, a more intractable problem was Anatolia, where the Nawakiyya Türkmen was led by a member of the Seljuk family, Arslan Isra’il’s descendant Sulayman b. Qutlumush.217 With the collapse of Byzantium into civil war following Manzikert, the Türkmen had been able to spread to the far west of Anatolia, into the region of Bithynia that would later foster the Ottoman state, whose ample pasturelands appealed to nomads. Turkey Web Series Watch Now […]

  2. […] Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 13 It would, however, be up to Malikshah’s successors to deal with the Crusaders. As far as Malikshah was concerned, a more intractable problem was Anatolia, where the Nawakiyya Türkmen was led by a member of the Seljuk family, Arslan Isra’il’s descendant Sulayman b. Qutlumush.217 With the collapse of Byzantium into civil war following Manzikert, the Türkmen had been able to spread to the far west of Anatolia, into the region of Bithynia that would later foster the Ottoman state, whose ample pasturelands appealed to nomads. Turkey Web Series Watch Now […]

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