Thursday, June 20, 2024

Turkey Web Series Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 13 With English Subtitle Free To Watch

Turkey Web Series Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 13

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Malikshah and Nizam al- Mulk, 1072–92

Turkey Web Series The greatest long-term consequence of Atsız’s achievement in capturing Syria from its weak Fatimid rulers would not become apparent in the Middle East for a couple more decades. Alongside the Byzantine collapse at Manzikert, Atsız’s capture of Jerusalem – which had now been under Muslim rule for some four hundred years – was represented in Europe as a threat to Christendom, and in 1074 Pope Gregory II announced his intention ‘to take up arms against the enemies of God and push forward even to the sepulcher of the Lord under his supreme leadership’.

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 13 It would, however, be up to Malikshah’s successors to deal with the Crusaders. As far as Malikshah was concerned, a more intractable problem was Anatolia, where the Nawakiyya Türkmen was led by a member of the Seljuk family, Arslan Isra’il’s descendant Sulayman b. Qutlumush.217 With the collapse of Byzantium into civil war following Manzikert, the Türkmen had been able to spread to the far west of Anatolia, into the region of Bithynia that would later foster the Ottoman state, whose ample pasturelands appealed to nomads. Turkey Web Series Watch Now

Sometime in, or more likely, before 1081, Sulayman gained control of the ancient city of Nicaea (modern İznik). Anna Comnena described the situation: [T]he godless Turks were in sight, living in the Propontis area, and Sulayman, who commanded all the east, was actually encamped in the vicinity of Nicaea. His sultanate was in his city . . .

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 13 The whole countryside of Bithynia and Thynia was unceasingly exposed to Sulayman’s foragers; marauding parties on horseback and on foot were raiding as far as the town now called Damalis [Üsküdar] on the Bosphorus itself; they carried off much booty and all but tried to leap over the very sea. The Byzantines saw them living unafraid and unmolested in the little villages on the coast and in sacred buildings. Turkey Web Series Watch Now

The Türkmen was not simply a nuisance. They were also potentially valuable allies to the various contenders for the Byzantine crown. Like all mercenaries, the Turks’ loyalties were flexible, so Sulayman found himself supporting first Michael Doukas and then Nikephoros Botaneiates in their short-lived efforts to assert themselves as emperor. Turkey Web Series Watch Now

Desperate to secure support, another pretender to the crown, Nikephoros Melissenos, handed over control of the cities of ‘Asia, Phrygia, and Galatia’ to his Turkish allies.219 By 1081, the year is conventionally given as the beginning of the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia (or Rum), Sulayman b. Qutlumush was thus in control of a large part of western and central Anatolia.

His ambitions, however, remained further east, to unite the Nawakiyya under his leadership. He had earlier fought Atsız for leadership of the Syrian Nawakiyya,220, and having secured a base in Anatolia, he again set out for Syria, capturing Cilicia and Antioch in 475/1083–5 and attacking Aleppo in 479/1086. Although out- outwardly professing loyalty to Malikshah, these attacks within the lands of the Great Seljuk sultanate itself suggest that like his father Qutlumush, Sulayman had his sights set on the leadership of all the Seljuk Türkmen, in other words, to displace Malikshah himself.

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk 13 The gravity of the crisis forced Malikshah to march in person to Syria, although in the event Tutush killed Sulayman in battle before the sultan arrived.221 Sulayman’s sons were captured and exiled to Khurasan, while Malikshah despatched his amirs Bozan and Bursuq to impose his authority over the Anatolian Türkmen, although with little success. Turkey Web Series Watch Now

Anna Comnena recounts that the sultan even offered the Byzantine emperor Alexios an alliance to clear Bithynia of Türkmen, whom he evidently continued to regard as his errant subjects.222 The Nawakiyya polity in Anatolia, however, survived in the form of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Sulayman’s son Qılıj Arslan eventually escaped from captivity to return to Anatolia in triumph, confirming its independence from the Great Seljuks. Turkey Web Series Watch Now

Turkey Web Series Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 13

After Malikshah, the Seljuk sultans in Khurasan and Iraq were too preoccupied with their internal affairs to intervene in Anatolia. today. Written in Persian, it purports to advise the ruler on how to run the Seljuk state, and Lambton described it as ‘an administrative handbook’.

224 While it is sometimes called a ‘mirror for princes’, it contains little of the advice about the sultan’s private conduct in hunting, drinking, and feasting typical of contemporary examples of the genre. Nizam al- Mulk constantly holds up as an ideal the practice of the Samanid, and especially the Ghaznavid realm where he had started his bureaucratic career.

A first version of the text was prepared for presentation to Malikshah between 479/1086 and 484/1091, and a second part was added in 484/1091. In other words, it was composed right at the end of Nizam al- Mulk’s career, just as evidence suggests he was beginning to lose the sultan’s confidence (see p. 71 below).

The book contains several barely dis-guided ad hominem attacks on Nizam al- Mulk’s rivals, above all his arch-enemy in the bureaucracy Taj al- Mulk, and the latter’s patron Terken Khatun, Malikshah’s wife. These enemies are accused of secret adherence to Ismailism, repeated examples of the dangers of which are given in the text.

At one point Nizam al-Mulk writes: ‘The Master of the World [Malikshah] has become weary of his humble servant . . . One day The Master will realize [the] iniquity and criminal deeds [of these enemies] – when I have disappeared. Then he will know the measure of my devotion and loyalty to this victorious empire.

The Siyasatnama thus represents an attempt by Nizam al-Mulk to save his position at court by discrediting his enemies and showing how only he can solve what seem to have been growing administrative and fiscal problems within the empire (pp. 70–1 below).

Far from being a simple administrative handbook, its prescriptions are often better evidence for what Seljuk practice was not rather than what it was; and frequently Nizam al- Mulk sorrowfully notes that such- and such practice used to be done but has fallen into abeyance. Rather than an advertisement for the success of the Persian bureaucrats at acculturating the Seljuks to their norms, it is testimony to their limitations.

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Turkey Web Series Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 13

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