Tuesday, June 25, 2024

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 01 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০১ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল migrations westwards. Oghuz had been noted in Islamic Central Asia even before the ninth- century rise of the Liao. Ibn al-A thir records that: ‘These Ghuzz are a people who moved from the furthest frontier regions of the Turks to Transoxiana in the days of al-M ahdi, and converted to Islam.’

10 This would put the Oghuz migration between c. 158/775 and 169/785, the dates of the Caliph al-M ahdi’s reign. The credibility of the report is strengthened by the fact we know of other Turkish people who were on the move west- wards in the same period,

11 following the collapse of the Gök Türk empire. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle. Originally, the term Oghuz seems to have meant something like a nomadic ‘confederation’,12 but from the mid-e ighth century a distinct Oghuz cultural and linguistic identity started to emerge within the broader family of groups who identified themselves as Turks. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

13 At roughly the same time, these Oghuz started to form what scholars have regarded as a ‘state’ in the southern parts of what is now Kazakhstan and Russia – the Volga–Syr Darya region.14 This enormous, largely flat steppe region would provide ample pasture space for the sheep, camels and horses on which a nomadic existence depended. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Nomads migrated vast distances within it to secure the essential necessities of their lifestyle – pasturage for their flocks: cool dry high land in summer (yaylāq, modern Turkish yayla) and lower lying warm winter grounds, often by rivers (qïshlāq, kışlak). A Mamluk source records that one group of Oghuz regularly migrated between winter pastures at Balasaghun by Lake Issyk Kul (in modern Kyrgyzstan) and summer ones by the Volga, a distance of roughly 1,500 miles, and there is some evidence to suggest a similar pattern may have been true of the Seljuk clan.

15 However, not all Oghuz were nomads. Along the Syr Darya River, on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Islamic world, there were quite a number of Oghuz-p opulated towns.16 Yengi- Kent (‘New town’, also known by its Persian name, Dih-i naw, ‘New village’), for instance, served as the winter quarters of an Oghuz yabghu, a chief’s title inherited from the Gök Türk empire. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

17 State is probably too grand a term for these political structures. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle. The 10 Ibn al- Athir, al- Kamil, XI, 176 11 Golden, ‘The Turks: Origins and Expansion’, 20–1. 12 Golden, ‘The Migrations of the Oghuz’, 47. 13 Ibid., 57. 14 See Peacock, Early Seljūq History, 21–6. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

15 Ibid., 24. 16 Ibid., 54–5. In addition, see now Peter Golden, ‘Courts and Court Culture in the Proto- urban and Urban Developments among the pre- Chinggisid Turkic Peoples’, in David Durand- Guédy (ed.), Turko- Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life (Leiden, 2013), esp. 22–31, 50–1. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

17 Golden, ‘Türk Imperial Tradition’, 50–5. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle. 24 | the great seljuk empire imperial legacy of the Gök Türk empire and the sacral title of qaghan were inherited not by the Oghuz, but by the Khazar empire based on the Volga (eighth–tenth centuries) to which many Oghuz chiefs were in some sense – at least in theory – subject.

18 It is in the Khazar state that we find our earliest reference to Seljuk and his father Duqaq. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle. According to accounts composed for the courts of the first two Seljuk sultans, Tughrıl and Alp Arslan, the ancestors of the dynasty served the Khazar ruler as military commanders.Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

19 This suggests that by the mid-t enth century Duqaq and Seljuk were active in the area to the west of the Aral Sea, near the Khazar capital of Itil on the Volga. In common with much of the Khazar elite, they may have adhered to the Jewish faith. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল
Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

20 The Migration of Seljuk Sometime in the late tenth century the Seljuk family broke decisively with the Khazars.21 The details are hazy. Ibn Hassul, a bureaucrat at Tughrıl’s court, claimed that the rebel was Seljuk himself,22 but the Maliknama attributes the revolt to Seljuk’s father Duqaq.

23 Meanwhile, Arabic chronicles suggest that the Oghuz collaborated with an attack by the Rus’ on Itil in 965, which struck a fatal blow to the Khazar empire and may indicate the broader con- text for the revolt.24 Mirkhwand’s version of the Maliknama, on the other hand, attributes the break with the Khazars to court intrigues, and goes on to recount how Seljuk thought much about how to save himself. He decided to flee into exile.

When he had decided on flight, with a hundred horsemen, 1500 camels and 50,000 sheep he headed for the lands of Samarqand.25 18 Ibid. 19 See the discussion of these accounts in Peacock, Early Seljūq History, 27–35. 20 On Judaism in the Khazar empire, see Peter B. Golden, ‘The Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism’, in P. B. Golden, H. Ben-S hammai and A. Rona-T as (eds), The World of the Khazars (Leiden 2007), esp.

144 (reprinted in Golden, Turks and Khazars, study XI). See further Chapter 7 below. 21 The principal secondary literature on this period is: Cahen, ‘Le Maliknameh’, passim; Mehmet Altay Köymen, Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Tarihi, vol. I: Kuruluş Devri (Ankara, 1979), 18–36; Peacock, Early Seljūq History, 16–47.

22 Ibn Hassul, Tafdil al- Atrak, 49. 23 Mirkhwand, Rawdat al- Safa (Tehran, 1338), IV, 235; cf. Bar Hebraeus, Chronography, I, 235. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle. 24 Golden, ‘Migrations’, 77–9; Peacock, Early Seljūq History, 34–5; Bosworth, The Ghaznavids, 220; Ibn al- Athir, al- Kamil, VIII, 565. 25 Mirkhwand, Rawdat al- Safa, IV, 236. Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 2 English Subtitle.

the rise of the seljuks | 25 The migration (dated only by a fourteenth-c entury source to 375/985–6)26 brought Seljuk and his followers to the town of Jand, near modern Kyzylorda in western Kazakhstan. Jand was the heart of an Oghuz principality which was a vassal of Khwarazm, the northernmost Muslim province in Central Asia.

Khwarazm, ruled by the Ma’munid dynasty, was itself theoretically subject to the Samanid state (204/819–390/999) that dominated Transoxiana and Khurasan. Disputes over pasture and taxes soon broke out between Seljuk and the local Oghuz ruler, the yabghu ‘Ali and his son Shahmalik.27 Although Islam existed within the Khazar domains,28 Jand, through its subjugation to Khwarazm, would have been the first Muslim- ruled area that Seljuk and his followers encountered.

It was there that Seljuk is said to have embraced the faith of Islam, and to have recruited support from ‘the Turks of that frontier who incline towards holy war’,29 with whose aid he was able to establish himself in a position of authority.The motives for Seljuk’s conversion are opaque (see pp. 246–7 below), but the impetus behind his migration in the first place is scarcely any clearer. In addi- tion to the reason the Maliknama gives us – the break with the Khazars – modern scholars have suggested that climate change may have forced the nomadic Seljuks to migrate to escape a shortage of pasture on the steppe.

30 It is true that some scientific evidence does point to increased aridity in the Aral Sea region around this period,31 but this is hardly conclusive, as it usually takes more than one single factor to spark a migration.

Alparslan Buyuk Seljuk Episode 02 English Subtitles Free | আল্প আর্সালান বুয়ুক সেলজুক ভলিউম ০২ বাংলা সাবটাইটেল

Moreover, the Maliknama suggests this was not a mass movement of people: rather, it was a small- scale exodus led by one specific aristocratic nomadic chief, Seljuk, and his personal followers, accompanied by their most valuable possessions – their livestock. Far from being a sudden deluge of people onto an unsuspecting sedentary world, the migration was initially too slight an occurrence to be noted by Muslim chroniclers.

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