Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Episode 81 With English Subtitle
Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman
THE RISE OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY
Historical records show Osman Gazi, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, was a chieftain of the semi-nomadic Turcoman, fighting on the frontier, under the command of the Emir of Kastamonu. How he emerged as the founder of a dynasty is a central historical problem. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
To become an independent leader in the Seljuk frontier organization, frontier tradition required that Osman win a major victory over the Christians and receive the title of bey from the Seljuk sultan. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman captured an important Byzantine fortress, and after the victory the sultan proclaimed him bey, sending him the traditional symbols of authority – a robe of honor, flag, horse, and drum.
The tradition attempts to show a legitimate Islamic origin for Osman’s authority. According to the same account, Osmân proclaimed his independence after his famous victory at Baphaeon in 1301 and had the hut read in his own name. This again is a later tradition, invented to legitimize the royal authority of the Ottoman dynasty; but there can be no doubt that this victory was the most important fact in bringing Osman into the historical limelight. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
At the same time, dervish orders dominated the spiritual life of the frontiers, and consequently, a mystic origin was also sought for Ottoman political power. The earliest accounts show Osman receiving sanctification from Şeyh Edebali, who was probably the head of an ahî fraternity. Predicting that Osman’s descendants would rule the world, Şeyh Edebali girded him with a gaze’s sword. Osman also had the foresight to marry the daughter of Edebali, the most influential man on the frontier. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
On Osman’s death, a meeting to choose his successor was held in the zawiya of Edible’s nephew, Hasan the Ahî. Orhan and his son Suleiman later created in newly conquered areas hundreds of valves for these ahîs and other dervishes, confirming that the ahîs played an important part in the establishment of the Ottoman state and dynasty. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
Orhan, the true founder of Ottoman power, bore the title of sultan, and as a token of independence struck the first Ottoman coins. As the small Anatolian principalities began to recognize the sovereignty of Rohan’s son, Murad, he assumed the title of ‘Hudâvendigâr’ – Emperor – and ‘Sultan-i Azzam’ – the Most Exalted Sultan – which the Seljuk sultans before him had used and which clearly indicated his claim to the title of empire. His successor, Bâyezîd I, was the first Ottoman sultan whom contemporary western sources described as ‘imperator’ – emperor.
In 1395 Bayezid sought from the Abbasid caliph in Cairo official recognition of his title Sultan al-Rûm – the sultan of the Byzantine lands – which had been a special title of the Seljuk rulers of Anatolia. But soon afterward, Timur was to lay claim to the former Mongol territories in Anatolia and demand the submission of the Ottoman ruler, whom he considered a mere frontier bey.
Later Timur’s son, Shâhrukh, was to make the same claim, which the Ottomans countered by producing a genealogy that connected their own line to the ancient Turkish khans of central Asia, and by claiming descent from the legendary Oğuz Khan. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
In this period the Ottomans consciously revived and adopted the Turkish traditions of central Asia. Writing in the time of Murâd II, the historian Yaz c oğlu stated that ‘Ertugrul, from the tribe of Kay , his son Osman Bey, and the beys on the frontier, held an assembly. When they had consulted each other and understood the custom of the Oghuz, they appointed Osman khan.’ The central Asian concept of kinship thus united with the Islamic concept of the sultan as a gâzî leader.
With the conquest of Constantinople, Mehmed II became the most prestigious Muslim ruler. The Ottomans regarded him as the greatest Islamic sovereign since the first four caliphs, and the Islamic world came to regard Holy War as the greatest source of power and influence. Mehmed the Conqueror saw himself as fighting on behalf of all the Muslims:
These tribulations are for God’s sake. The sword of Islam is in our hands. If we had not chosen to endure these tribulations, we would not be worthy to be called gâzîs. We would be ashamed to stand in God’s presence on the Day of Resurrection.’1 In his letter informing the Mamlûk sultan of his conquest of Constantinople, Mehmed wrote. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
It is your responsibility to keep the pilgrimage routes open for the Muslims; we have the duty of providing gazes.’ With the possession of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, Mehmed regarded himself as the only legitimate heir of the Roman Empire. Giacomo de Languschi reported him as saying ‘The world empire must be one, with one faith and one sovereignty.
To establish this unity, there is no place more fitting than Constantinople.’2 The Greek scholars and Italian humanists at his court instructed him in Roman history: a Greek, George Trapezuntios, addressed him thus in a poem: ‘No one can doubt that he is the emperor of the Romans. He who holds the seat of empire in his hand is the emperor of right, and Constantinople is the center of the Roman Empire. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now
The Conqueror claimed to have united in his own person the Islamic, Turkish and Roman traditions of universal sovereignty, and with the object of making Istanbul the center of a world empire, he appointed Gennadius to the Greek Orthodox patriarchate in 1454 and brought to Istanbul the Armenian patriarch and the chief rabbi.
During the reign of Selîm, the status of the Ottoman sultan changed radically. By annexing Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, the old heartland of the caliphate, to the empire, Selîm became more than simply a gâzî sultan on the frontiers of the Islamic world; he became at the same time protector of Mecca and Medina and guardian of the pilgrimage routes.
This was more significant than his bearing the title of caliph, a title then in use by every Muslim ruler. Although Selîm sent to his Palace in Istanbul the holy relics of the Prophet, considered the symbols of the caliphate, it is not true that the Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil, surrendered the office of caliph to Selîm, or that Selîm claimed to be, in the classical sense, the caliph of the whole Islamic world. According to sunnî doctrine, the caliph had to be from the Quraysh, the Prophet’s tribe, and, furthermore, the classical concept of a single caliph for the whole Islamic community had had no force since the thirteenth century.
When Süleymân I laid claim to the ‘Supreme Caliphate’ and used the title ‘Caliph of the Muslims’, he meant only to emphasize his preeminence among Muslim rulers and his protectorship of Islam. In a letter sent to congratulate Süleymân on his accession to the throne, the Sherif of Mecca wrote that his success in Holy War had exalted him above all other Islamic sovereigns.
The Ottoman sultans always remained gâzî sultans but they extended the concept of gazâ to bring the whole Islamic world under their protection. They invested the institution of the caliphate with new meaning, basing their concept not on the classical doctrines but on the principles of gazâ – Holy War. Turkish Series Subtitles Kurulus Osman Watch now